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Soy J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Leivar P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gonzalez-Schain N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Sentandreu M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Arabidopsis seedlings display rhythmic growth when grown under diurnal conditions, with maximal elongation rates occurring at the end of the night under short-day photoperiods. Current evidence indicates that this behavior involves the action of the growth-promoting bHLH factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 5 (PIF5) at the end of the night, through a coincidence mechanism that combines their transcriptional regulation by the circadian clock with control of protein accumulation by light. To assess the possible role of PIF3 in this process, we have analyzed hypocotyl responses and marker gene expression in pif single- and higher-order mutants. The data show that PIF3 plays a prominent role as a promoter of seedling growth under diurnal light/dark conditions, in conjunction with PIF4 and PIF5. In addition, we provide evidence that PIF3 functions in this process through its intrinsic transcriptional regulatory activity, at least in part by directly targeting growth-related genes, and independently of its ability to regulate phytochrome B (phyB) levels. Furthermore, in sharp contrast to PIF4 and PIF5, our data show that the PIF3 gene is not subject to transcriptional regulation by the clock, but that PIF3 protein abundance oscillates under diurnal conditions as a result of a progressive decline in PIF3 protein degradation mediated by photoactivated phyB, and consequent accumulation of the bHLH factor during the dark period. Collectively, the data suggest that phyB-mediated, post-translational regulation allows PIF3 accumulation to peak just before dawn, at which time it accelerates hypocotyl growth, together with PIF4 and PIF5, by directly regulating the induction of growth-related genes. © 2012 The Authors.

Franklin K.A.,University of Leicester | Quail P.H.,University of California at Berkeley | Quail P.H.,Plant Gene Expression Center
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Light signals are fundamental to the growth and development of plants. Red and far-red light are sensed using the phytochrome family of plant photoreceptors. Individual phytochromes display both unique and overlapping roles throughout the life cycle of plants, regulating a range of developmental processes from seed germination to the timing of reproductive development. The evolution of multiple phytochrome photoreceptors has enhanced plant sensitivity to fluctuating light environments, diversifying phytochrome function, and facilitating conditional cross-talk with other signalling systems. The isolation of null mutants, deficient in all individual phytochromes, has greatly advanced understanding of phytochrome functions in the model species, Arabidopsis thaliana. The creation of mutants null for multiple phytochrome combinations has enabled the dissection of redundant interactions between family members, revealing novel regulatory roles for this important photoreceptor family. In this review, current knowledge of phytochrome functions in the light-regulated development of Arabidopsis is summarised.

Burko Y.,Hebrew University | Geva Y.,Hebrew University | Refael-Cohen A.,Hebrew University | Shleizer-Burko S.,Hebrew University | And 6 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2011

Plant architecture is a predictable but flexible trait. The timing and position of organ initiation from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) contribute to the final plant form. While much progress has been made recently in understanding how the site of leaf initiation is determined, the mechanism underlying the temporal interval between leaf primordia is still largely unknown. The Arabidopsis ZRIZI (ZRZ) gene belongs to a large gene family encoding multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporters. Unique among plant MATE transporters identified so far, ZRZ is localized to the membrane of a small organelle, possibly the mitochondria. Plants overexpressing ZRZ in initiating leaves are short, produce leaves much faster than wild-type plants and show enhanced growth of axillary buds. These results suggest that ZRZ is involved in communicating a leaf-borne signal that determines the rate of organ initiation. © 2011 The Author.

Lewis J.D.,University of Toronto | Lewis J.D.,Plant Gene Expression Center | Lewis J.D.,University of California at Berkeley | Wilton M.,University of Toronto | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis. © 2014, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved.

Sentandreu M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Martin G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gonzalez-Schain N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Leivar P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2011

The phytochrome (phy)-interacting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (PIFs) constitutively sustain the etiolated state of dark-germinated seedlings by actively repressing deetiolation in darkness. This action is rapidly reversed upon light exposure by phy-induced proteolytic degradation of the PIFs. Here, we combined a microarray-based approach with a functional profiling strategy and identified four PIF3-regulated genes misexpressed in the dark (MIDAs) that are novel regulators of seedling deetiolation. We provide evidence that each one of these four MIDA genes regulates a specific facet of etiolation (hook maintenance, cotyledon appression, or hypocotyl elongation), indicating that there is branching in the signaling that PIF3 relays. Furthermore, combining inferred MIDA gene function from mutant analyses with their expression profiles in response to light-induced degradation of PIF3 provides evidence consistent with a model where the action of the PIF3/MIDA regulatory network enables an initial fast response to the light and subsequently prevents an overresponse to the initial light trigger, thus optimizing the seedling deetiolation process. Collectively, the data suggest that at least part of the phy/ PIF system acts through these four MIDAs to initiate and optimize seedling deetiolation, and that this mechanism might allow the implementation of spatial (i.e., organ-specific) and temporal responses during the photomorphogenic program. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

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