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Akademija, Lithuania

Bendokas V.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Gelvonauskiene D.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Gelvonauskis B.,Plant Gene Bank | Siksnianas T.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Zemdirbyste | Year: 2014

Apple tree (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widespread and economically important fruit trees. Productivity and economic effect of apple orchards depend on many strongly related factors, one of them being tree canopy architecture, which determines fruit bearing and demand for pruning. Main apple canopy architecture topics are related to application of growth regulators, fertilizers, studies of shoot development and pruning, and environmental influence while physiologic aspects are studied less. Phytohormones play a major role in controlling many physiological processes of plant growth and development. Different amounts of phytohormones are found in the shoots of apple trees depending on their canopy architecture. However, information about phytohormones and their ratio in juvenile orchard plants is insufficient. Our goal was to identify phytohormones related to apple canopy architecture and to evaluate their usage as biochemical markers in predicting future canopy ideotype of apple seedlings in the first year of growth. It was established that large amount of auxin and high auxin to zeatin ratio are specific to columnar apple trees and they can be used as biochemical markers in juvenile phase. These amounts and ratios are similar in juvenile and cropping columnar apple trees, so phytohormone amount and ratio is independent of tree development stage. It is possible to select columnar apple hybrids in the first year of growth, thus reducing breeding expenses. © 2014, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. All right reserved. Source

Cesoniene L.,Vytautas Magnus University | Daubaras R.,Vytautas Magnus University | Gelvonauskis B.,Plant Gene Bank
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Actinidia kolomikta Maxim. possesses exceptionally decorative properties and produces valuable berries. The aim of this study was to distinguish the informative phenotypic characteristics and to evaluate genetic diversity of A. kolomikta germplasm collection at Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University. Variegation intensity of leaves as well as berry size and shape were defined as the most informative for phenotypic characterization of cultivars and clones. Female cultivars differed in the total number of fruiting shoots per m length of two-year-old shoots. DNA investigations using RAPD markers defined significant genetic diversity of A. kolomikta accessions and the level of their relationship. The percentage of polymorphism ranged from 55.6 to 80.0%. The highest genetic identity was obtained for the female clones F2 and F4 (GDxy=0.059). Two specific markers were identified with the primers OPC-02 and 2B for the cultivar 'Laiba' and the female clone F4M4. Accessions were grouped on a dendrogram using the UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages) method and revealed two main clusters. 'Laiba' proved to be the most divergent cultivar and was joined to the other accessions at the genetic distance of 0.824. Source

Gelvonauskis B.,Plant Gene Bank | Zilinskaite S.,Vilnius University | Cesoniene L.,Vytautas Magnus University | Labokas J.,Institute of Botany of Nature Research Center | Gelvonauskiene D.,Institute of Horticulture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

In Lithuania, the genetic resources of fruit crops are mainly concentrated, preserved and studied at four institutions: the Institute of Horticulture of Lithuanian Centre of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, the Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre, Vilnius University Botanical Garden and Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University. Cultivars of apples, plums, sour and sweet cherries, black currants and strawberries are conserved at the Institute of Horticulture. There are 1620 accessions of fruit plants in the collections of the Institute. The most numerous is the apple collection with nearly 800 accessions. The genetic resources of fruit plants have been used in different breeding programmes and 85 cultivars were bred. The representatives of wild populations of raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, hawthorns, lingonberries, bog whortleberries, bilberries and cranberries as well as cultivars of American cranberries and blueberries are maintained at the Institute of Botany of the Nature Research Centre (NRC) with a total of 150 accessions. The native populations of fruit and berry plants are also studied in situ, in their original habitats by the NRC. Valuable forms of local origin and cultivars of edible honeysuckle, Japanese quince (Chaenomeles), raspberries, blackberries and grapes are maintained in the field collections of Vilnius University Botanical Garden. These collections contain more than 750 accessions. Rich collections of snowballs, Actinidia, cranberries, highbush blueberries and some others are established in Kaunas Botanical Garden. There are more than 300 cultivars and forms of local origin as well as forms introduced from other countries. The evaluation of accessions (contents of biologically active compounds, vitamins and other substances of berries), suitability to the local climatic conditions, technological aspects of propagation and cultivation and other properties are being studied. Source

Stukeniene G.,Vilnius University | Juodkaite R.,Vilnius University | Skridaila A.,Vilnius University | Dapkuniene S.,Plant Gene Bank
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

At present genetic resources collections in the Floriculture Department consists of 900 flower taxa developed by Lithuanian plant breeders. Lithuanian flower breeders released a lot of new cultivars of Crocus L., Dahlia Cav., Gladiolus L., Hemerocallis L., Iris L., Lilium L., Paeonia L., Primula L., Tulipa L. and etc. The aim of this research is to study and evaluate ornamental properties of flower cultivars released by the Lithuanian breeders. The investigations, descriptions and evaluations of morphological, bioecological and ornamental properties of gladiolus (Gladiolus L.) and peony (Paeonia L.) cultivars were carried out in the period of 1998-2008 according to the requirements of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) and methodologies used in neighbouring countries. Having collected, accumulated, researched and evaluated the flowers created by Lithuanian breeders, in the future it will be possible to select the most valuable cultivars (genetic resources) and to make a system of the effective preservation and rational usage of the genetic resources. In general, Lithuanian cultivars are originals adapted to the local climate conditions, and it is urgent to conserve, investigate and foster it as a part of the land culture. The most distinguishing and attractive (unbelievable form, perfect display of blooms in the spike, colour harmony) Lithuanian gladiolus cultivars, investigated in the Botanical Garden of Vilnius University, are the following ones: 'Fiji' (author A. Lukosevicius), 'Nu, Gromov, Pogodi!' (P. Ciplijauskas), 'Laimute' (P. Ciplijauskas), 'Merkurijus' (A. Lukosevicius), 'Onute-3' (P. Balcikonis), 'Paparcio Ziedas' (P. Ciplijauskas), 'Saules Takas' (P. Balcikonis), 'Snieguole' (P. Ciplijauskas), 'Solveiga' (A. Lukosevicius), and 'Spalvingas Sapnas' (J.A. Liutkevicius). Forty-four cultivars of paeony created by Lithuanian plant breeders (O. Skeiviene and E. and J. Tarvidai) are confirmed by Orders of Minister of Environmental as National Plant Genetic Resources. These cultivars will be preserved in future. Source

Bendokas V.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Gelvonauskiene D.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Siksnianas T.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Staniene G.,Lithuanian Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | And 4 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Apple tree canopy architecture is very important for productivity, fruit quality and ripening. Our objective was to evaluate inheritance traits of an apple tree canopy and to identify morphological phytomer or shoot parameters, which could be used as a marker for selection of apple trees with desired canopy architecture. Crosses between apple trees with different canopy architecture using top-cross scheme were performed. Combining ability of parental cultivars and clones was evaluated. Progeny of columnar and spur ideotype apple trees will have the shortest internodes according to general combining ability effects. Offspring of standard and weeping apple trees will have moderate and long internodes. Data show that apple phytomer parameters, such as internode length and lamina angle to shoot, are inherited and related to future plant canopy architecture. These phytomer traits are easily detected in the first year of growth of apple hybrid. It was shown that short internode is directly related to columnar tree canopy, and high lamina angle to shoot in the juvenile phase is a morphological marker of weeping apple tree canopy. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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