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Xin H.-L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhai X.-F.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zheng X.,Shanghai University | Zhang L.,Shanghai University | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of total flavone of branches and leaves of Cunninghamia lanceolata (TFC) to provide a scientific basis for its clinical use and resource development. TFC was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in mice or rats using chemical and thermal models of nociception, including acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate latency test, formalin test and carrageenan induced paw oedema test. Results showed that TFC given orally can significantly attenuate acetic acid-induced writhing in mice in a dose-dependent manner. In the hot plate latency test, TFC showed common activity in prolonging duration time only at the highest dose (400 mg/kg). Each dose of TFC could not significantly inhibit the first phase but was active in the later phase of formalin-induced pain, whereas morphine showed notable activity in the two phases. In the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, TFC could significantly and dose-dependently reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema at the third and fifth hour, and decrease the content of PEG2 in paw edema tissue and that of COX-2 in blood serum. It may be concluded that TFC showed both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, showing that it can be of importance in drug development, especially in the field of pain and inflammation. Source


Moses T.,Vlaams Institute for Biotechnology | Moses T.,Ghent University | Moses T.,Catholic University of Leuven | Moses T.,John Innes Center | And 17 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2015

Artemisia annua is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the antimalarial sesquiterpenoid artemisinin. In addition to producing a variety of sesquiterpenoids, A. annua also accumulates mono-, di-, and triterpenoids, the majority of which are produced in the glandular trichomes. A. annua also has filamentous trichomes on its aerial parts, but little is known of their biosynthesis potential. Here, through a comparative transcriptome analysis between glandular and filamentous trichomes, we identified two genes, OSC2 and CYP716A14v2, encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized triterpenoids in A. annua. By expressing these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we characterized the catalytic function of these proteins and could reconstitute the specialized triterpenoid spectrum of A. annua in these heterologous hosts. OSC2 is a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase that produces a-amyrin, b-amyrin, and d-amyrin. CYP716A14v2 is a P450 belonging to the functionally diverse CYP716 family and catalyzes the oxidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, leading to triterpenes with a carbonyl group at position C-3, thereby providing an alternative biosynthesis pathway to 3-oxo triterpenes. Together, these enzymes produce specialized triterpenoids that are constituents of the wax layer of the cuticle covering the aerial parts of A. annua and likely function in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source


Li Y.,Fudan Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R and nter | Zhou Y.,Fudan Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R and nter | Wang Z.,Fudan Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R and nter | Sun X.,Fudan Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R and nter | And 2 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2010

With genetic manipulation, five genes (HPPD, VTE2, VTE3, VTE1, and VTE4), which encode enzymes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis, were over-expressed in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, either alone or in couple combinations (VTE2 + VTE4 and VTE3 + VTE4), to value and compare the roles of enzymes played in tocopherol biosynthetic pathway under the same genetic background. Our results suggested that, elevated expression level of biosynthetic pathway gene affected either total tocopherol content or composition, it is recommended to choose two or more enzymes with different functions for genetic manipulation. It was also found that metabolic engineering of tocopherol biosynthetic pathway affected endogenous ascorbate and glutathione pools in leaves. Further study suggested that expression levels of genes encoding enzymes of Halliwell-Asada cycle were up-regulated, such as APX, DHAR and MDAR. These findings provide hints on the relationship of lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin E and water-soluble antioxidants vitamin C and glutathione, which will help to perfect theory in plant physiology and give practical instruction for metabolic engineering. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Plapung P.,Chiang Mai University | Khamsukdee S.,Plant Biotechnology Research Center | Potapohn N.,Chiang Mai University | Smitamana P.,Chiang Mai University
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science | Year: 2014

CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6- Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) (2:1) or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gammadimethylallylamino) purine (2ip) and IAA (5:1) and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH) lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R) included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4 -1, 93S4 2-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible. © 2014 Science Publication. Source

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