Plant Biosecurity Science

Dutton Park, Australia

Plant Biosecurity Science

Dutton Park, Australia

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Crous P.W.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Summerell B.A.,Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust | Shivas R.G.,Plant Biosecurity Science | Burgess T.I.,Murdoch University | And 22 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2012

Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Phytophthora amnicola from still water, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sp., Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiae from Corymbia sp., Diaporthe eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus sp., Sporisorium andrewmitchellii from Enneapogon aff. lindleyanus, Myrmecridium banksiae from Banksia, and Pilidiella wangiensis from Eucalyptus sp. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Gondwanamyces wingfieldii from Protea caffra, Montagnula aloes from Aloe sp., Diaporthe canthii from Canthium inerne, Phyllosticta ericarum from Erica gracilis, Coleophoma proteae from Protea caffra, Toxicocladosporium strelitziae from Strelitzia reginae, and Devriesia agapanthi from Agapanthus africanus. Other species include Phytophthora asparagi from Asparagus officinalis (USA), and Diaporthe passiflorae from Passiflora edulis (South America). Furthermore, novel genera of coelomycetes include Chrysocrypta corymbiae from Corymbia sp. (Australia), Trinosporium guianense, isolated as a contaminant (French Guiana), and Xenosonderhenia syzygii, from Syzygium cordatum (South Africa). Pseudopenidiella piceae from Picea abies (Czech Republic), and Phaeocercospora colophospermi from Colophospermum mopane (South Africa) represent novel genera of hyphomycetes. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. © 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


Male M.F.,Fisheries and Forestry | Male M.F.,Charles Sturt University | Tan Y.P.,Plant Biosecurity Science | Vawdrey L.L.,Fisheries and Forestry | Shivas R.G.,Plant Biosecurity Science
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2012

Symptoms of collar rot were observed on 3-month-old papaya plants cv. RB1. The pathogen was identified as Calonectria ilicicola based on disease symptoms, fungal morphology, pathogenicity and ITS sequencing. © 2012 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.


Crous P.W.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Summerell B.A.,Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust | Shivas R.G.,Plant Biosecurity Science | Romberg M.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2011

Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Diaporthe ceratozamiae on Ceratozamia robusta, Seiridium banksiae on Banksia marginata, Phyllosticta hymenocallidicola on Hymenocallis littoralis, Phlogicylindrium uniforme on Eucalyptus cypellocarpa, Exosporium livistonae on Livistona benthamii and Coleophoma eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus piperita. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Phoma proteae, Pyrenochaeta protearum and Leptosphaeria proteicola on Protea spp., Phaeomoniella niveniae on Nivenia stokoei, Toxicocladosporium leucadendri on Leucadendron sp. and Scorias leucadendri on Leucadendron muirii. Other species include Myrmecridium phragmitis on Phragmites australis (Netherlands) and Camarographium carpini on Carpinus betulus (Russia). Furthermore, Pseudoidriella syzygii on Syzygium sp. represents a novel genus of hyphomycetes collected in Australia. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. © 2011 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


Crous P.W.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Crous P.W.,University Utrecht | Crous P.W.,Wageningen University | Summerell B.A.,Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust | And 3 more authors.
Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi | Year: 2012

Harknessiaceae is introduced as a new family in the ascomycete order Diaporthales to accommodate species of Harknessia with their Wuestneia-like teleomorphs. The family is distinguished by having pycnidial conidiomata with brown, furfuraceous margins, brown conidia with hyaline, tube-like basal appendages, longitudinal striations, and rhexolytic secession. Six species occurring on Eucalyptus are newly introduced, namely H. australiensis, H. ellipsoidea, H. pseudohawaiiensis, and H. ravenstreetina from Australia, H. kleinzeeina from South Africa, and H. viterboensis from Italy. Epitypes are designated for H. spermatoidea and H. weresubiae, both also occurring on Eucalyptus. Members of Harknessia are commonly associated with leaf spots, but also occur as saprobes and endophytes in leaves and twigs of various angiosperm hosts. © 2012 Nationaal Herbarium Nederland & Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures.


Damm U.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Cannon P.F.,CABI Europe UK | Woudenberg J.H.C.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Johnston P.R.,Landcare Research | And 6 more authors.
Studies in Mycology | Year: 2012

Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture. © CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.


You M.P.,University of Western Australia | Lanoiselet V.,University of Western Australia | Wang C.P.,Baron Hay Court | Shivas R.G.,Plant Biosecurity Science | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

Commercial rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) have been recently reintroduced to the Ord River Irrigation Area in northern Western Australia. In early August 2011, unusual leaf spot symptoms were observed by a local rice grower on rice cultivar Quest. A leaf spot symptom initially appeared as grey-green and/or water soaked with a darker green border and then expanded rapidly to several centimeters in length and became light tan in color with a distinct necrotic border. Isolations from typical leaf lesions were made onto water agar, subcultured onto potato dextrose agar, and maintained at 20°C. A representative culture was lodged in the Western Australian Culture Collection Herbarium, Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia (WAC 13466) and as a herbarium specimen in the Plant Pathology Herbarium, Plant Biosecurity Science (BRIP 54721). Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and (ITS)2 regions flanking the 5.8S rRNA gene were carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4 (4). The PCR products were sequenced and BLAST analyses used to compare sequences with those in GenBank. The sequence had 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch, the causal agent of rice blast, the most important fungal disease of rice worldwide (1). Additional sequencing with the primers Bt1a/Bt1b for the β-tubulin gene, primers ACT-512F/ACT-783R for the actin gene, and primers CAL-228F/CAL-737R for the calmodulin gene showed 100% identity in each case with M. oryzae sequences in GenBank, confirming molecular similarity with other reports, e.g., (1). The relevant sequence information for a representative isolate has been lodged in GenBank (GenBank Accession Nos. JQ911754 for (ITS) 1 and 2; JX014265 for β-tubulin; JX035809 for actin; and JX035808 for calmodulin). Isolates also showed morphological similarity with M. oryzae as described in other reports, e.g., (3). Spores of M. oryzae were produced on rice agar under “black light” at 21°C for 4 weeks. Under 30/28°C (day/night), 14/12 h (light/dark), rice cv. Quest was grown for 7 weeks, and inoculated by spraying a suspension 5 × 105 spores/ml onto foliage until runoff occurred. Inoculated plants were placed under a dark plastic covering for 72 h to maximize humidity levels around leaves, and subsequently maintained under >90% RH conditions. Typical symptoms of rice blast appeared within 14 days of inoculation and were as described above. Infection studies were successfully repeated and M. oryzae was readily reisolated from leaf lesions. No disease symptoms were observed nor was M. oryzae isolated from water-inoculated control rice plants. There have been previous records of rice blast in the Northern Territory (2) and Queensland, Australia (Australian Plant Pest Database), but this is the first report of M. oryzae in Western Australia, where it could potentially be destructive if conditions prove conducive. © 2012, The American Phytopathological Society. All rights received.


Lanoiselet V.,Baron Hay Court | Lanoiselet V.,University of Western Australia | You M.P.,University of Western Australia | Li Y.P.,University of Western Australia | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

Rice(Oryza sativa L.)has been grown in the Ord River Irrigation Area (ORIA) in northern Western Australia since 1960. In 2011, a sheath rot of rice was observed in the ORIA. Symptoms were variable, appearing as either (i) oblong pale to dark brown lesions up to 3 cm length, (ii) lesions with pale grey/brown centers and with dark brown margins, or (iii) diffuse dark or reddish brown streaks along the sheath. Lesions enlarged and coalesced, often covering the majority of the leaf sheath, disrupting panicle emergence. Isolations from small pieces of infested tissues from plants showing sheath rot symptoms were made onto water agar, subcultured onto potato dextrose agar, cultures maintained at 20°C, and a representative culture lodged both in the Western Australian Culture Collection maintained at the Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia (as WAC 13481) and in the culture collection located at the DAFF Plant Pathology Herbarium (as BRIP 54763). Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and (ITS)2 regions flanking the 5.8S rRNA gene were carried out with universal primers ITS1 and ITS4 according to the published protocol (4). The DNA PCR products from a single isolate were sequenced and BLAST analyses used to compare sequences with those in GenBank. The sequence had 99% nucleotide identity with the corresponding sequence in GenBank for Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksworth. Isolates showed morphological (e.g., conidiophore and conidia characteristics) (2) and molecular (1) similarities with S. oryzae as described in other reports. The relevant sequence information for a representative isolate was lodged in GenBank (GenBank Accession No. JQ965668). Spores of S. oryzae were produced on rice agar under “black light” at 22°C to induce sporulation over 4 weeks. Under conditions of 30/28°C (day/night), 14/12 h (light/dark), rice cv. Quest, grown for 11 weeks until plants reached the tillering stage, was inoculated by spraying a suspension 5 × 107 spores/ml of the same single isolate onto foliage until runoff occurred. Inoculated plants were placed under a dark plastic cover for 72 h to maximize humidity levels around leaves and subsequently maintained under >90% relative humidity conditions. Symptoms of sheath rot as described in (i) and (ii) above appeared by 14 days after inoculation, with lesions up to 23 cm long by 15 days post-inoculation. Severe disease prevented young panicles from emerging. Infection studies were successfully repeated and S. oryzae was reisolated from leaf lesions 1 week after lesion appearance. No disease was observed on water-inoculated control rice plants. There have been records of S. oryzae on rice in New South Wales in the early 1980s (3) and in 2006 to 2007 (Australian Plant Pest Database), but to our knowledge, this is the first report of this pathogen in Western Australia. © 2012, The American Phytopathological Society. All rights receved.

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