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Gilkerson J.,University of California at Davis | Callis J.,University of California at Davis | Callis J.,Plant Biology Laboratory
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2014

Many plant growth and developmental processes are modulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin-modulated proteolysis of Aux/IAAs, a family of transcriptional repressors, represents a major mode of auxin action. Auxin facilitates the interaction of Aux/IAAs with TIR1/AFB F-box proteins, promoting their ubiquitination by the SCFTIR1/AFB ubiquitin E3 ligase leading to subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To identify new genes regulating Aux/IAA proteolysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, we took a genetic approach, identifying individuals with altered degradation of an IAA1-luciferase fusion protein (IAA1-LUC). A mutant with 2-fold slower IAA1-LUC degradation rate compared with wild-type was isolated. Positional cloning identified the mutant as an allele of TOPOISOMERASE6B, named top6b-7. TOP6B encodes a subunit of a plant and archea-specific enzyme regulating endoreduplication, DNA damage repair and transcription in plants. T-DNA insertion alleles (top6b-8 and top6b-9) were also analyzed. top6b-7 seedlings are less sensitive to exogenous auxin than wild-type siblings in primary root growth assays, and experiments with DR5:GUS. Additionally, top6b-7 seedlings have a 40% reduction in the amount of endogenous IAA. These data suggest that increased IAA1-LUC half-life in top6b-7 probably results from a combination of both lower endogenous IAA levels and reduced sensitivity to auxin. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kurihara Y.,Plant Biology Laboratory | Schmitz R.J.,Plant Biology Laboratory | Schmitz R.J.,Genomic Analysis Laboratory | Nery J.R.,Genomic Analysis Laboratory | And 9 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2012

Eukaryotes possess several RNA surveillance mechanisms that prevent undesirable aberrant RNAs from accumulating. Arabidopsis XRN2, XRN3, and XRN4 are three orthologs of the yeast 59-to-39 exoribonuclease, Rat1/Xrn2, that function in multiple RNA decay pathways. XRN activity is maintained by FIERY1 (FRY1), which converts the XRN inhibitor, adenosine 39, 59-bisphosphate (PAP), into 59AMP. To identify the roles of XRNs and FRY1 in suppression of non-coding RNAs, strand-specific genome-wide tiling arrays and deep strand-specific RNA-Seq analyses were carried out in fry1 and xrn single and double mutants. In fry1-6, about 2000 new transcripts were identified that extended the 39 end of specific mRNAs; many of these were also observed in genotypes that possess the xrn3-3 mutation, a partial loss-of-function allele. Mutations in XRN2 and XRN4 in combination with xrn3-3 revealed only a minor effect on 39 extensions, indicating that these genes may be partially redundant with XRN3. We also observed the accumulation of 39 remnants of many DCL1-processed microRNA (miRNA) precursors in fry1-6 and xrn3-3. These findings suggest that XRN3, in combination with FRY1, is required to prevent the accumulation of 39 extensions that arise from thousands of mRNA and miRNA precursor transcripts. © 2012 Kurihara et al. Source

Jung H.-S.,Dartmouth College | Jung H.-S.,Plant Biology Laboratory | Crisp P.A.,Australian National University | Estavillo G.M.,Australian National University | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2013

Sunlight provides energy for photosynthesis and is essential for nearly all life on earth. However, too much or too little light or rapidly fluctuating light conditions cause stress to plants. Rapid changes in the amount of light are perceived as a change in the reduced/oxidized (redox) state of photosynthetic electron transport components in chloroplasts. However, how this generates a signal that is relayed to changes in nuclear gene expression is not well understood. We modified redox state in the reference plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using either excess light or low light plus the herbicide DBMIB (2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-pbenzoquinone), a well-known inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. Modification of redox state caused a change in expression of a common set of about 750 genes, many of which are known stress-responsive genes. Among the most highly enriched promoter elements in the induced gene set were heat-shock elements (HSEs), known motifs that change gene expression in response to high temperature in many systems. We show that HSEs from the promoter of the ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE 2 (APX2) gene were necessary and sufficient for APX2 expression in conditions of excess light, or under low light plus the herbicide. We tested APX2 expression phenotypes in overexpression and loss-of-function mutants of 15 Arabidopsis A-type heat-shock transcription factors (HSFs), and identified HSFA1D, HSFA2, and HSFA3 as key factors regulating APX2 expression in diverse stress conditions. Excess light regulates both the subcellular location of HSFA1D and its biochemical properties, making it a key early component of the excess light stress network of plants. Source

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