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Kim M.-C.,Georgia State University | Kim M.-C.,Emory University | Song J.-M.,Sungshin Womens University | Eunju O.,Georgia State University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Therapy

The extracellular domain of M2 (M2e), a small ion channel membrane protein, is well conserved among different human influenza A virus strains. To improve the protective efficacy of M2e vaccines, we genetically engineered a tandem repeat of M2e epitope sequences (M2e5x) of human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses, which was expressed in a membrane-anchored form and incorporated in virus-like particles (VLPs). The M2e5x protein with the transmembrane domain of hemagglutinin (HA) was effectively incorporated into VLPs at a several 100-fold higher level than that on influenza virions. Intramuscular immunization with M2e5x VLP vaccines was highly effective in inducing M2e-specific antibodies reactive to different influenza viruses, mucosal and systemic immune responses, and cross-protection regardless of influenza virus subtypes in the absence of adjuvant. Importantly, immune sera were found to be sufficient for conferring protection in naive mice, which was long-lived and cross-protective. Thus, molecular designing and presenting M2e immunogens on VLPs provide a promising platform for developing universal influenza vaccines without using adjuvants. © The American Society of Gene &Cell Therapy. Source

Bae J.H.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency | Lim S.Y.,Korea University
Food and Chemical Toxicology

This study investigated to compare lipid profiles in ordinary and dark muscles from chub mackerel and to examine antiproliferative and antioxidative properties of lipid classes. The average levels of neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and phospholipids (PL) in ordinary muscle were 92.32±0.19%, 5.10±0.48%, and 2.58±0.46%; in dark muscle were 96.88±0.15%, 2.59±0.36%, and 0.54±0.29%, respectively. The fatty acid composition indicated that PL had a higher percentage of PUFA (especially 22:6n-3) with lower percentages of SFA and MUFA compared to NL and GL (p<0.05). The main ion peaks of GL in ordinary and dark muscles showed that monocharged and bischarged molecular ion were presented at m/z 876.9 and 438.8, respectively. In MTT assay, inhibition of AGS and HT-29 cell proliferation was greatest with the 0.5 and 1.0mgmL -1 GL treatments. The GL of ordinary muscle with 0.05mgmL -1 concentrations markedly decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H 2O 2 compared to the control (p<0.05). From our results, GL might have antiproliferative and antioxidant properties based on protective effect against the production of intracellular ROS. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kim H.J.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency | Kwon S.R.,Sun Moon University
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

The geographic distribution of koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, based on the alleles of 3 domains) and sequence analysis using 3 regions of KHV genomic DNA (SphI-5, 9/5, and the thymidine kinase gene). In this study, samples from 6 carp showing symptoms of KHV infection in 2008 were examined for the presence of KHV by using PCR and cell culture isolation methods. KHV was detected in 2 (Pyeongtaek and Buan) of the samples. Sequence analysis revealed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was Asia genotype variant 1 (A1), and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was European genotype variant 4 (E4). In addition, PCR patterns and sequence analysis based on the alleles of 3 domains of an alternate KHV classification system confirmed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was CyHV3-J, and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was CyHV3-third genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the presence of 2 genotypes of KHV (genotype A1/CyHV3-J; genotype E4/CyHV3-third genotype) in South Korea. © Inter-Research 2013. Source

Sundaram J.,Russell Research Center | Park B.,Russell Research Center | Kwon Y.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Silver/biopolymer nanoparticles were prepared by adding 100 mg silver nitrate to 2% polyvinyl alcohol solution and reduced the silver nitrate using 2% trisodium citrate for high performance Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrates. Optical properties of nanoparticle were measured using UV/VIS spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging microscopy. Nanoparticle morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Substrate reproducibility and repeatability was checked by measuring SERS signals of trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl) ethylene (BPE) and Rhodamine 6G. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. Source

Hwang J.,Andong National University | Park Y.,Andong National University | Kim Y.,Andong National University | Hwang J.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency | Lee D.,Kyungsung University
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology

Immune-associated genes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, were predicted from 454 pyrosequencing transcripts of hemocytes collected from fifth instar larvae challenged with bacteria. Out of 22,551 contigs and singletons, 36% of the transcripts had at least one significant hit (E-value cutoff of 1e-20) and used to predict immune-associated genes implicated in pattern recognition, prophenoloxidase activation, intracellular signaling, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Immune signaling and AMP genes were further confirmed in their expression patterns in response to different types of microbial challenge. To discriminate the AMP expression signaling between Toll and Imd pathways, RNA interference was applied to specifically knockdown each signal pathway; the separate silencing treatments resulted in differential suppression of AMP genes. An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, suppressed expression of most AMP genes controlled by Toll and Imd pathways, while challenge with heat-killed X. nematophila induced expression of all AMPs in experimental larvae. Benzylideneacetone (BZA), a metabolite of X. nematophila, suppressed the AMP gene inductions when it was co-injected with the heat-killed X. nematophila. However, arachidonic acid, a catalytic product of PLA2, significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of BZA on the AMP gene expression. This study suggests that X. nematophila suppresses AMP production controlled by Toll and Imd pathways by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis in S. exigua. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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