Kim M.-C.,Georgia State University |
Kim M.-C.,Emory University |
Song J.-M.,Sungshin Women's University |
Eunju O.,Georgia State University |
And 4 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2013
The extracellular domain of M2 (M2e), a small ion channel membrane protein, is well conserved among different human influenza A virus strains. To improve the protective efficacy of M2e vaccines, we genetically engineered a tandem repeat of M2e epitope sequences (M2e5x) of human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses, which was expressed in a membrane-anchored form and incorporated in virus-like particles (VLPs). The M2e5x protein with the transmembrane domain of hemagglutinin (HA) was effectively incorporated into VLPs at a several 100-fold higher level than that on influenza virions. Intramuscular immunization with M2e5x VLP vaccines was highly effective in inducing M2e-specific antibodies reactive to different influenza viruses, mucosal and systemic immune responses, and cross-protection regardless of influenza virus subtypes in the absence of adjuvant. Importantly, immune sera were found to be sufficient for conferring protection in naive mice, which was long-lived and cross-protective. Thus, molecular designing and presenting M2e immunogens on VLPs provide a promising platform for developing universal influenza vaccines without using adjuvants. © The American Society of Gene &Cell Therapy.
Kim H.J.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Kwon S.R.,Sun Moon University
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2013
The geographic distribution of koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, based on the alleles of 3 domains) and sequence analysis using 3 regions of KHV genomic DNA (SphI-5, 9/5, and the thymidine kinase gene). In this study, samples from 6 carp showing symptoms of KHV infection in 2008 were examined for the presence of KHV by using PCR and cell culture isolation methods. KHV was detected in 2 (Pyeongtaek and Buan) of the samples. Sequence analysis revealed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was Asia genotype variant 1 (A1), and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was European genotype variant 4 (E4). In addition, PCR patterns and sequence analysis based on the alleles of 3 domains of an alternate KHV classification system confirmed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was CyHV3-J, and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was CyHV3-third genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the presence of 2 genotypes of KHV (genotype A1/CyHV3-J; genotype E4/CyHV3-third genotype) in South Korea. © Inter-Research 2013.
Lee S.J.,Korea University |
Kwon Y.S.,Korea University |
Lee J.-E.,Korea University |
Choi E.-J.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
And 3 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome disease (PRRS), a disease that has a significant and economic impact on the swine industry. In this study, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers with high specificity and affinity against VR-2332 strain of PRRSV type II were successfully obtained. Of 19 candidates, the LB32 aptamer was found to be the most specific and sensitive to VR-2332 strain according to an aptamer-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The detection of VR-2332 of PRRSV type II was successfully accomplished using the enzyme-linked antibody-aptamer sandwich (ELAAS) method. The detection limit of ELAAS was 4.8 × 100 TCID50/mL that is comparable to some of the previous reports of the PCR-based detection but does not require any complicated equipment or extra costs. Moreover, this ELAAS-based PRRSV detection showed similar sensitivity for both the VR-2332 samples spiked in diluted swine serum and in buffer. Therefore, this VR-2332 strain-specific aptamer and its assay method with high specificity can be used as an alternative method for the fast and precise detection of PRRSV. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Bae J.H.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Lim S.Y.,Korea University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012
This study investigated to compare lipid profiles in ordinary and dark muscles from chub mackerel and to examine antiproliferative and antioxidative properties of lipid classes. The average levels of neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and phospholipids (PL) in ordinary muscle were 92.32±0.19%, 5.10±0.48%, and 2.58±0.46%; in dark muscle were 96.88±0.15%, 2.59±0.36%, and 0.54±0.29%, respectively. The fatty acid composition indicated that PL had a higher percentage of PUFA (especially 22:6n-3) with lower percentages of SFA and MUFA compared to NL and GL (p<0.05). The main ion peaks of GL in ordinary and dark muscles showed that monocharged and bischarged molecular ion were presented at m/z 876.9 and 438.8, respectively. In MTT assay, inhibition of AGS and HT-29 cell proliferation was greatest with the 0.5 and 1.0mgmL -1 GL treatments. The GL of ordinary muscle with 0.05mgmL -1 concentrations markedly decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H 2O 2 compared to the control (p<0.05). From our results, GL might have antiproliferative and antioxidant properties based on protective effect against the production of intracellular ROS. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Hwang J.,Andong National University |
Park Y.,Andong National University |
Kim Y.,Andong National University |
Hwang J.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Lee D.,Kyungsung University
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2013
Immune-associated genes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, were predicted from 454 pyrosequencing transcripts of hemocytes collected from fifth instar larvae challenged with bacteria. Out of 22,551 contigs and singletons, 36% of the transcripts had at least one significant hit (E-value cutoff of 1e-20) and used to predict immune-associated genes implicated in pattern recognition, prophenoloxidase activation, intracellular signaling, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Immune signaling and AMP genes were further confirmed in their expression patterns in response to different types of microbial challenge. To discriminate the AMP expression signaling between Toll and Imd pathways, RNA interference was applied to specifically knockdown each signal pathway; the separate silencing treatments resulted in differential suppression of AMP genes. An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, suppressed expression of most AMP genes controlled by Toll and Imd pathways, while challenge with heat-killed X. nematophila induced expression of all AMPs in experimental larvae. Benzylideneacetone (BZA), a metabolite of X. nematophila, suppressed the AMP gene inductions when it was co-injected with the heat-killed X. nematophila. However, arachidonic acid, a catalytic product of PLA2, significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of BZA on the AMP gene expression. This study suggests that X. nematophila suppresses AMP production controlled by Toll and Imd pathways by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis in S. exigua. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sundaram J.,Russell Research Center |
Park B.,Russell Research Center |
Kwon Y.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2013
Silver/biopolymer nanoparticles were prepared by adding 100 mg silver nitrate to 2% polyvinyl alcohol solution and reduced the silver nitrate using 2% trisodium citrate for high performance Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrates. Optical properties of nanoparticle were measured using UV/VIS spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging microscopy. Nanoparticle morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. Substrate reproducibility and repeatability was checked by measuring SERS signals of trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl) ethylene (BPE) and Rhodamine 6G. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.
Lee M.-H.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Jeoung H.-Y.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Lim J.-A.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Song J.-Y.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2012
Kobuviruses have been detected in humans and several animal species, including cattle, swine, sheep, canines, mice, and probably bats. While investigating the possibility of Kobuviruses infecting additional animal host species, we detected kobuvirus in three fecal samples from domestic Korean black goats. In a maximum parsimony tree and a Bayesian tree, the 08KG680 strain fell within the bovine kobuvirus lineage, but the 09KG172 and 10KG056 strains did not fall within any of the known animal kobuvirus lineages. Comparative analysis of the partial nucleotide sequences of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the 08KG680 strain also revealed high amino acid sequence identity and a close genetic relationship with bovine kobuvirus, but the amino acid sequences of the other two strains had low similarity to those of known kobuvirus isolates from any animal species. The similarity of the sequence of the 08KG680 strains with the bovine kobuvirus indicate that the infectious may have originated from cattle, but the possible source for remaining strains could not be classified. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.
Kim H.-R.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Lee Y.-J.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Park C.-K.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Oem J.-K.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) among wild birds emerged simultaneously with outbreaks in domestic poultry in South Korea during November 2010-May 2011. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2, as did viruses found in Mongolia, the People's Republic of China, and Russia in 2009 and 2010.
Tamang M.D.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Nam H.-M.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Jang G.-C.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Kim S.-R.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
And 5 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012
A total of 47 extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from stray dogs in 2006 and 2007 in the Republic of Korea were investigated using molecular methods. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase phenotypes were identified in 12 and 23 E. coli isolates, respectively. All 12 ESBL-producing isolates carried bla CTX-M genes. The most common CTX-M types were CTX-M-14 (n = 5) and CTX-M-24 (n = 3). Isolates producing CTX-M-3, CTX-M-55, CTX-M-27, and CTX-M-65 were also identified. Twenty-one of 23 AmpC β-lactamase-producing isolates were found to carry bla CMY-2genes. TEM-1 was associated with CTX-M and CMY-2 β-lactamases in 4 and 15 isolates, respectively. In addition to bla TEM-1, two isolates carried bla DHA-1, and one of them cocarried bla CMY-2. Both CTX-M and CMY-2 genes were located on large (40 to 170 kb) conjugative plasmids that contained the insertion sequence ISEcp1 upstream of the bla genes. Only in the case of CTX-M genes was there an IS903 sequence downstream of the gene. The spread of ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamases occurred via both horizontal gene transfer, accounting for much of the CTX-M gene dissemination, and clonal spread, accounting for CMY-2 gene dissemination. The horizontal dissemination of bla CTX-M and bla CMY-2 genes was mediated by IncF and IncI1-Iγ plasmids, respectively. The clonal spread of bla CMY-2 was driven mainly by E. coli strains of virulent phylogroup D lineage ST648. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bla DHA-1 in E. coli strains isolated from companion animals. This study also represents the first report of CMY-2 β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates from dogs in the Republic of Korea. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Kim H.-R.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency |
Oem J.-K.,Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2014
We examined the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian coronaviruses by studying oropharyngeal swabs from 32 wild bird species. The 14 avian coronaviruses detected belonged to the gamma-coronaviruses and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with some previously identified strains in wild waterfowl, but not with infectious bronchitis viruses. © Wildlife Disease Association 2014.