Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry

Beijing, China

Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry

Beijing, China
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Zhang C.,Nanjing University | Ju W.,Nanjing University | Chen J.M.,Nanjing University | Li D.,Nanjing University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences | Year: 2014

Forest stand age plays a crucial role in determining the terrestrial carbon source or sink strength and reflects major disturbance information. Forests in China have changed drastically in recent decades, but quantification of spatially explicit forest age at national level has been lacking to date. This study generated a national map of forest age at 1-km spatial resolution using the remotely sensed forest height and forest type data in 2005, as well as relationships between age and height retrieved from field observations. These relationships include biomass as an intermediate parameter for major forest types in different regions of China. Biomass-height and age-biomass relationships were well fitted using field observations, with respective R 2 values greater than 0.60 and 0.71 (P-<-0.01), indicating the viability of age-height relationships developed for age estimation in China. The resulting map was evaluated by comparison with national, provincial, and county forest inventories. The validation had high regional (R2-=-0.87, 2-8 years errors in six regions), provincial (R2-=-0.53, errors less than 10 years and consistent age structure in most provinces), and plot (R 2 values of 0.16-0.32, P-<-0.01) agreement between map values and inventory-based estimates. This confirms the reliability and applicability of the age-height approach demonstrated in this study for quantifying forest age over large regions. The map reveals a large spatial heterogeneity of forest age in China: old in southwestern, northwestern, and northeastern areas, and young in southern and eastern regions. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Zhao X.,Beijing Forestry University | Li Z.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhu Q.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhu D.,Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry | Liu H.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The loess hilly-gully region is a focus region of the "Grain for Green" program in China. Drought is the main problem in the study region. Precipitation and temperature are two indicators that directly characterize climatic drought. A thorough analysis of the precipitation, temperature and drought characteristics of the loess hilly-gully region can clarify the current water and heat conditions in the region to improve regional water resource management and provide a reliable reference for effectively improving water use efficiency. In this study, we fully analyzed the precipitation and temperature characteristics at 11 representative synoptic stations in the loess hilly-gully region over the period from 1957 to 2014 using a combination of trend-free pre-whitening, linear trend estimation, Spearman's rho test, the Mann-Kendall (M-K) trend and abrupt change tests and wavelet analysis. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index was calculated and analyzed on different time scales. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) There were significant spatial differences and interannual variations in precipitation at the 11 synoptic stations in the study area between 1957 and 2014; the precipitation consistently decreased with fluctuations, and the extent of the decrease varied from a maximum of 17.74 mm/decade to a minimum of 2.92 mm/decade. Except for the downward trends of the autumn and winter mean temperatures at Hequ, the seasonal and annual mean temperatures at the stations showed upward trends, including highly significant upward trends. (2) Alternating drought and wetness occurred in the study area; the wet period mainly appeared in the 1960s, and the main dry period lasted from the late 20th century to 2012. There were fewer dry and wet years than normal years; however, the study area still showed a drying trend, and the severity of the drought was increasing. (3) The annual precipitation and annual mean temperature showed marked cyclical fluctuations at each synoptic station, and the first primary cycle was approximately 28 years. The seasonal precipitation and seasonal temperature showed different cycle lengths; the seasonal cycles of precipitation for spring, summer, autumn and winter were 10, 28, 10 and 26 years long, respectively, and the cycles of the temperature fluctuations for all four seasons were approximately 28 years long. © 2017 Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Zhang C.,Ludong University | Zhang C.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Ju W.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Chen J.M.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2015

Forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change because of their high carbon storage and productivity. China has experienced a pronounced increase in forest area resulting from afforestation and reforestation activities since the 1970s. However, few comprehensive analyses have been made to assess the recent dynamics of biomass carbon sinks in China's forests. This study refined biomass carbon sinks of China's forests based on eight forest inventories from 1973 to 2013. These sinks increased from 25.0 to 166.5 Tg C yr-1 between 1973 and 2008, and then decreased to 130.9 Tg C yr-1 for the period of 2009-2013 because the increases in forest area and biomass carbon density became slower. About 7% and 93% of this sink reduction occurred in planted and natural forests. The carbon sinks for young, middle-aged and premature forests decreased by 27.3, 27.0, and 7.6 Tg C yr-1, respectively. 42% of this decrease was offset by mature and overmature forests. During 2009-2013, forest biomass carbon sinks decreased in all regions but the north and northwest regions. The drivers for changes of forest biomass sinks differ spatially. More intensive harvest of young and middle-aged forests and snow damage were the major drivers for the decreases of biomass carbon sinks in the east (8.0 Tg C yr-1) and south (19.8 Tg C yr-1) regions. The carbon sink reduction in the southwest region (16.7 Tg C yr-1) was mainly caused by increased timber harvesting and natural disturbances, such as droughts in Yunnan province, snow damage in Guizhou province and forest fires in Sichuan province. In the northeast region, the sink reduction occurred mainly in Heilongjiang province (7.9 Tg C yr-1) and was caused dominantly by the combined effects of diseases, windthrow and droughts. The carbon sink increase was primarily attributed to forest growth and decreased deforestation in the north (10.0 Tg C yr-1) and northwest (2.3 Tg C yr-1) regions. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Li Z.-B.,China National Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Wang C.-H.,China National Pulp and Paper Research Institute | Jia W.-H.,Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry | Liu J.-G.,China National Pulp and Paper Research Institute
Chung-kuo Tsao Chih/China Pulp and Paper | Year: 2010

This paper introduces the application and classification of heat sublimation transfer paper, particularly deals with the characteristic, using method, evaluation and requirement of quality as well as quality of the base paper of heat sublimation transfer paper. With the improvement of heat sublimation transfer technology, heat sublimation transfer paper will be further developed.

Ren X.-Y.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang Z.-T.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang Z.-T.,Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry | Wang W.-L.,Beijing Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
BioResources | Year: 2013

Transformation and products distribution of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and its derived components during pyrolysis were investigated by thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) and analytical pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) techniques. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo was generally an integrated result of the decomposition of its several derived components by examining the degradation process parameters and pyrolysis kinetics. The main peaks of the infrared (IR) spectrum for gases released at the highest intensity were assigned to be CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, acids, aldehydes, aromatics, ethers, and alcohols. Pyrolysis temperature played an important role in the products distribution of moso bamboo by affecting the products' yield and secondary cracking of heavy compounds. 500°C was an inflection point for product release during moso bamboo pyrolysis. Further cracking of aromatic compounds and furans into lighter products was observed with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

Yan M.,Northeast Forestry University | Li S.,Northeast Forestry University | Zhang M.,Northeast Forestry University | Li C.,Northeast Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
BioResources | Year: 2013

Surface acetylated nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from cotton fiber by a single-step method under mild conditions using anhydrous phosphoric acid as the solvent. The absorbance peak of O-H was reduced, and the absorbance peaks of C=O and CH3 appeared in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the acetylated NCC with respect to that of the unmodified NCC. The roughly estimated degree of substitution was a little greater than 1.5 by FTIR analyses, implying that most of the free hydroxyl groups on the NCC surface were acetylated at 40 °C for 3 h. The carbons of the acetyl groups were clearly identified in the 13C cross polarization-magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum. The zeta potential was reduced from-32.12 mV to-20.57 mV after acetylation. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images showed that they were thread-like nano-crystals with a diameter less than 5 nm. Crystal structure analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that the acetylated NCC had the typical Cellulose'structure. The PLA film reinforced with 3 wt% acetylated NCC content exhibited the highest tensile strength, which was increased by 117% compared to the control. SEM observation demonstrated good interfacial interaction between the acetylated NCC and the matrix.

Li Q.,Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry | Wen-Ji Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Yang-Lun Y.,Chinese Academy of Forestry
Forest Products Journal | Year: 2012

Untreated and 160°C, 180°C, and 200°C thermo-treated bamboo bundle curtains were reconstructed to make high-density board by impregnation with phenol-formaldehyde resin. The physical and mechanical properties of the boards were examined to evaluate the effect of temperature on their qualities. The modulus of rupture decreased with the increase in thermo-treatment temperature and was reduced by nearly 50 percent after 200°C treatment; however, the modulus of elasticity and bonding shear strength did not change much between untreated and thermo-treated specimens. Thermo-treatment improved the dimensional stability of the boards. Thickness swelling atler water immersion and wet-dry cyclic testing decreased with increasing thermo-treatment temperature. Compared 'With the control specimens, the total color difference (ΔE*) changed greatly as the thermo-treatment temperature increased. The chemical and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that the major component content and functional groups in the major components changed after thermo-treatment. ©Forest Products Society 2012.

Xia X.-H.,Hunan University | Zhang D.-S.,Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry | Liu H.-B.,Hunan University | He Y.-D.,Hunan University
Gongneng Cailiao/Journal of Functional Materials | Year: 2010

High specific surface area activated carbons used for supercapacitors were prepared from bamboo char and petroleum coke by activation with KOH. The influences of the ratio of KOH to carbon on pore structure, adsorption behavior and capacity performance were investigated. Particular pore structure was showed in activated carbon when different carbon precurcor was used. Abundant micropores (< 2 nm) were discovered in bamboo char-based AC, whereas a relative high mesoporosity was exhibited in petroleum coke based AC when at the same ratio of KOH to carbon. The KOH-activated bamboo char and petroleum coke carbons presented high BET surface area up to 2610.7 and 2597.9 m2/g, respectively. When used for the electrodes of supercapacitors, they exhibited excellent capacitance characteristics in 30 wt% H2SO4 aqueous electrolytes and showed high specific capacitances of 206 and 213 F/g, respectively.

Li C.,Beijing Forestry University | Lin J.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhao G.,Beijing Forestry University | Zhang J.,Planning and Design Institute of Forest Products Industry
BioResources | Year: 2016

Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared by steam activation of windmill palm (WP) (Trachycarpus fortunei) fibers in a nitrogen atmosphere at various temperatures in the 600 to 850 °C range, and their characteristics were investigated. The effects of temperature, in terms of porous texture and surface chemistry, were identified through the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the ACFs prepared at relatively high temperatures presented more cracking, collapsed surfaces, and lower yields because of the violent reaction that occurred during the activation process. With increasing temperature, more micropores were generated, and then the number eventually declined because of the conversion of partial micropores into mesopores. The ACFs with the highest special surface area, 1320 m2/g, and total pore volume, 1.416 cm3/g, were obtained at the activation temperature of 850 °C. In addition, graphitic carbon, the main compound on the surface of ACFs, decreased. Conversely, the amount of functional groups containing C-O (except for C-OH) slightly increased with increasing activation temperatures. It was also found that the mesopore volume and methylene blue adsorption of ACFs were highly increased as the temperature increased from 600 to 850 °C. Accordingly, WP fibers are a promising precursor for ACF production.

Zhang C.,Nanjing University | Ju W.,Nanjing University | Chen J.M.,Nanjing University | Zan M.,Nanjing University | And 3 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

Inconsistent estimates of forest biomass carbon stocks (BCS) in China have been reported in recent decades using inventory data. This study was to update China's forest biomass carbon sink based on seven forest inventories from 1973 to 2008 and to identify the relative contributions to such sink from changes in forest area and biomass carbon density (BCD) as a result of growth, plantation and harvests in different regions. Our results indicated that total BCS of all forest types, including forest stands and other forest types (economic forests, woodlands, shrub forests, bamboo forests and trees on non-forest lands), increased by 65 % from 1973 to 2008 and recently reached 8.12 Pg C. Total BCS and BCD of forest stands (canopy coverage >20 %) increased from 4.11 Pg C and 35.10 Mg C ha-1 to 6.24 Pg C and 40.12 Mg C ha-1 during the study period, respectively. Forest stands acted as a biomass carbon sink of 0.17 Pg C year-1, which accounts for 84.4 % of the total sink of all forest types from 1999 to 2008 and have great potential to absorb more biomass carbon in the future due to large fractions of young and middle aged forests, which are increasing BCD. BCS of forest stands increased in all regions but the northeast region. Their biomass carbon sink was mainly driven by the BCD increase in the densely populated south and east regions and by the expansion of forest areas in the north, northwest, and southwest regions with abundant land resources. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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