Dannenberg A.L.,University of Washington |
Ricklin A.,Planning and Community Health Research Center |
Ross C.L.,Georgia Institute of Technology |
Schwartz M.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority |
And 3 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014
A health impact assessment (HIA) Is a tool that can he used to inform transportation planners of the potential health consequences of their decisions. Although dozens of transportation-related HIAs have heen completed in the United States, the characteristics of these HIAs and the interactions between public health professionals and transportation decision makers in these HIAs have not been documented. A master list of completed HIAs was used to identify transportation-related HIAs. Seventy-three transportation-related HIAs conducted in 22 states between 2004 and 2013 were identified. The IHAs were conducted for projects such as road redevelopments, bridge replacements, and development of trails and public transit. Policies such as road pricing, transit service levels, speed limits, complete streets, and safe routes to schooLs were also assessed. Five HIAs In which substantial interactions between public health and transportation professionals took place during and after the HIA were examined in detail and included HIAs of the road pricing policy in San Francisco, California; a bridge replacement in Seattle, Washington; new transit lines in Baltimore, Maryland, and Portland, Oregon; and the BeltLine transit, trails, and parks project in Atlanta, Georgia. Recommendations from the HIAs led to changes in decisions in some cases and helped to raise awareness of health issues by transportation decision makers in all cases. HIAs arc now used for many topics in transportation. The range of involvement of transportation decision makers in the conduct of HIAs varies. These case studies may serve as models for the conduct of future transportation-related HIAs, becanse the involvement of transportation agencies may increase the likelihood that an HIA will influence subsequent decisions.