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Erlandson M.C.,University of Saskatchewan | Sherar L.B.,University of Saskatchewan | Baxter-Jones A.D.G.,University of Saskatchewan | Jackowski S.A.,University of Saskatchewan | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of preterm low birth weight on bone mineral content in adolescence. In 2007 to 2008, data on adolescents were obtained for study, including 16 females and 25 males who were born preterm (37 weeks' gestation) between October 1, 1989, and December 31, 1995, with a birth weight of less than 1850 g. Preterm low-birth-weight individuals were age- and sex-matched to full-term (>37 weeks) normal-birth-weight (>2500 g) controls. Total body, hip, and spine bone mineral content (BMC) was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Male preterm individuals had less BMC at the proximal femur in adolescence compared with controls (p < 0.05). However, once adjusted for age, maturity, height, weight, physical activity, and diet, there were no differences between groups (p < 0.05) in any bone parameters. These findings suggest that preterm birth and low birth weight did not influence bone accrual in these individuals at adolescence. Copyright © 2011 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Choi W.,University of California at Los Angeles | Paulson S.E.,University of California at Los Angeles | Casmassi J.,Planning | Winer A.M.,University of California at Los Angeles
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Meteorology confounds the comparison of air quality data across time and space. This presents challenges, for example, to comparisons of pollutant concentration data obtained with mobile monitoring platforms on different days and/or locations within the same airshed. In part to address this challenge, we employed a classification and regression tree (CART) modeling approach that can serve as a useful and straightforward tool in such air quality studies, to determine the comparability of meteorological conditions between measurement days and locations as well as to compare primary pollutant concentrations corrected by meteorological conditions. Specifically, regression trees were developed to obtain representative concentrations of traffic-related primary air pollutants such as NOx and CO, based on meteorological conditions for 2007-2009 in the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The resulting regression trees showed strong correlations between the regression classifications developed for different pollutant metrics, such as daily CO and NOx maxima, as well as between monitoring sites. For the SoCAB, the most important meteorological parameters controlling primary pollutant concentrations were the mean surface wind speed, geopotential heights at 925 mbar, the upper air north-south pressure gradient, the daily minimum temperature, relative humidity at 1000 mbar, and vertical stability, in approximate order of importance. The value of developing a regression tree for a single season was also explored by performing CART analysis separately on summer data. Although seasonal classifications were similar to those developed from annual data, the standard deviations of the classification groups were somewhat reduced. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Sugden B.D.,Plum Creek Timber Company | Ethridge R.,705 Spurgin Road | Mathieus G.,Planning | Heffernan P.E.W.,PAFTI Inc | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forestry | Year: 2012

Under the federal Clean Water Act, states have developed nonpoint source control programs for forestry that range from voluntary to regulatory approaches. Nationally, management of runoff from forest roads is currently under scrutiny by courts, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Congress. This article describes Montana's "blended" program of voluntary forestry best management practices (BMP) for roads and upland practices, and a Streamside Management Zone Act, which regulates operations near streams. Biennial audits over the past 20 years have shown continuous improvement, with BMP implementation rates increasing from 78% in 1990 to 97% in 2010. Observed water quality impacts have declined from an average of eight per harvest site in 1990 to less than one in 2010. Activities and culture that have promoted an effective program include regular compliance monitoring, customized landowner and logger education programs, strong buy-in from the forestry community, and program coordination by a statewide stakeholder group. © 2012 Society of American Foresters.

Gianazza D.,Planning | Gianazza D.,CNRS Toulouse Institute in Information Technology
Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2010

The aim of the research presented in this paper is to forecast air traffic controller workload and required airspace configuration changes with enough lead time and with a good degree of realism. For this purpose, tree search methods were combined with a neural network. The neural network takes relevant air traffic complexity metrics as input and provides a workload indication (high, normal, or low) for any given air traffic control (ATC) sector. It was trained on historical data, i.e. archived sector operations, considering that ATC sectors made up of several airspace modules are usually split into several smaller sectors when the workload is excessive, or merged with other sectors when the workload is low. The input metrics are computed from the sector geometry and from simulated or real aircraft trajectories. The tree search methods explore all possible combinations of elementary airspace modules in order to build an optimal airspace partition where the workload is balanced as well as possible across the ATC sectors. The results are compared both to the real airspace configurations and to the forecast made by flow management operators in a French en-route air traffic control centre. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hillen J.B.,Flinders University | Reed R.L.,Flinders University | Woodman R.J.,Flinders University | Law D.,Health Services Integration | And 2 more authors.
Australasian Journal on Ageing | Year: 2011

Aim: To describe admissions patterns of residential aged care facility (RACF) residents admitted to a major public hospital. Design, setting: Retrospective longitudinal study linking hospital admissions and the Department of Health and Ageing RACF provider data from July 1999 to June 2005. Participants: All permanent residents of aged care facilities in South Australia admitted to a single public hospital. Main outcome measures: Description of primary diagnoses and trends. Results: There were 3310 admissions from 147 RACFs across South Australia. The most frequent primary diagnoses were fractured femur/pelvis, pneumonia and ischaemic heart disease. Two diagnoses increased significantly with an 11% annual increase for infections and a 5% increase for femur fractures. Conclusion: Admissions from RACFs to a major South Australian public hospital are increasing primarily because of admissions for femur fractures and infections in high care. These conditions could be targeted for interventions to reduce hospital admissions. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

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