Arctic Planetary Science Institute

Rovaniemi, Finland

Arctic Planetary Science Institute

Rovaniemi, Finland
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Ohman T.,Universities Space Research Association | Ohman T.,NASA | Ohman T.,Arctic Planetary Science Institute | Kramer G.Y.,Universities Space Research Association | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets | Year: 2014

We used Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Arecibo and Mini-RF radar, and Diviner radiometer data with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera and Kaguya Terrain Camera images to characterize the target, ejecta, and impact melt-rich lithologies in and around lunar central peak crater Kepler. M 3 data indicate the impact melt rocks of crater floor to be high-Ca pyroxene dominated, distinct from the low-Ca pyroxene-dominated crater wall. The central uplift is high-Ca pyroxene dominated, and has higher albedo. These observations are consistent with thin mare basalts underlain by noritic Imbrium ejecta, underlain by gabbroic crustal material. M3 data reveal an enigmatic, splash-like feature of melt-rich material on the southeastern (uprange) crater wall and flank. M3 data also highlight halos around Kepler. In detail the halos are slightly variable, but in broad terms they define a consistent feature, offset to the inferred downrange direction, and interpreted to reflect the distribution of glass-bearing impact breccia. The radar data sets show most of the proximal ejecta to be radar-bright. However, Diviner rock abundance data do not indicate the presence of blocks on the surface nor can they be seen using LRO Narrow Angle Camera images. Thus, the blocks giving rise to the enhanced radar signal are buried. Beyond the radar-bright zone, a subtle radar-dark halo emerges, coincident with a region of very low rock abundance in Diviner data. This multidisciplinary approach provides a robust analysis of the main characteristics of a lunar complex crater and reveals previously unidentified features related to the distribution of impact melt. Key Points A splash-like feature of impact melt on the uprange crater wall and flank Spectrally defined halos of glass-bearing material invisible in imagery Radar-dark and surface rock-poor (Diviner) outer ejecta zone ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Kramer G.Y.,Lunar and Planetary Institute | Jaiswal B.,Satellite Center | Hawke B.R.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Ohman T.,Lunar and Planetary Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets | Year: 2015

This paper discusses the methodology and results of a detailed investigation of Mare Frigoris using remote sensing data from Clementine, Lunar Prospector, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, with the objective of mapping and characterizing the compositions and eruptive history of its volcanic units. With the exception of two units in the west, Mare Frigoris and Lacus Mortis are filled with basalts having low-TiO2 to very low TiO2, low-FeO, and high-Al2O3 abundances. These compositions indicate that most of the basalts in Frigoris are high-Al basalts - a potentially undersampled, yet important group in the lunar sample collection for its clues about the heterogeneity of the lunar mantle. Thorium abundances of most of the mare basalts in Frigoris are also low, although much of the mare surface appears elevated due to contamination from impact gardening with the surrounding high-Th Imbrium ejecta. There are, however, a few regional thorium anomalies that are coincident with cryptomare units in the east, the two youngest mare basalt units, and some of the scattered pyroclastic deposits and volcanic constructs. In addition, Mare Frigoris lies directly over the northern extent of the major conduit for a magma plumbing system that fed many of the basalts that filled Oceanus Procellarum, as interpreted by Andrews-Hanna et al. (2014) using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission. The relationship between this deep-reaching magma conduit and the largest extent of high-Al basalts on the Moon makes Mare Frigoris an intriguing location for further investigation of the lunar mantle. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Schwarz W.H.,University of Heidelberg | Schmieder M.,University of Western Australia | Schmieder M.,Curtin University Australia | Buchner E.,Neu-Ulm University | And 4 more authors.
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2015

A recrystallized band of pale feldspathic impact melt in a gneissic impact breccia from the approximately 10 km Paasselkä impact structure in southeast Finland was dated via 40Ar/39Ar step-heating. The newly obtained plateau age of 228.7 ± 1.8 (2.2) Ma (2σ) (MSWD = 0.32; p = 0.93) is equal to the previously published pseudoplateau age of 228.7 ± 3.0 (3.4) (2σ) for the impact event. According to the current international chronostratigraphic chart and using the most recent published suggestions for the K decay constants, a Carnian (Late Triassic) age for the Paasselkä impact structure of 231.0 ± 1.8 (2.2) Ma (2σ) is calculated and considered the most precise and accurate age for this impact structure. The new plateau age for Paasselkä confirms the previous dating result but is, based on its internal statistics, much more compelling. © The Meteoritical Society, 2014.

Schmieder M.,University of Western Australia | Schmieder M.,Curtin University Australia | Schmieder M.,NASA | Jourdan F.,Curtin University Australia | And 5 more authors.
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2016

Field investigations in the eroded central uplift of the ≤30 km Keurusselkä impact structure, Finland, revealed a thin, dark melt vein that intersects the autochthonous shatter cone-bearing target rocks near the homestead of Kirkkoranta, close to the center of the impact structure. The petrographic analysis of quartz in this melt breccia and the wall rock granite indicate weak shock metamorphic overprint not exceeding ~8-10 GPa. The mode of occurrence and composition of the melt breccia suggest its formation as some kind of pseudotachylitic breccia. 40Ar/39Ar dating of dark and clast-poor whole-rock chips yielded five concordant Late Mesoproterozoic miniplateau ages and one plateau age of 1151 ± 10 Ma [± 11 Ma] (2σ MSWD = 0.11; P = 0.98), considered here as the statistically most robust age for the rock. The new 40Ar/39Ar age is incompatible with ~1.88 Ga Svecofennian tectonism and magmatism in south-central Finland and probably reflects the Keurusselkä impact, followed by impact-induced hydrothermal chloritization of the crater basement. In keeping with the crosscutting relationships in the outcrop and the possible influence of postimpact alteration, the Late Mesoproterozoic 40Ar/39Ar age of ~1150 Ma should be treated as a minimum age for the impact. The new 40Ar/39Ar results are consistent with paleomagnetic results that suggested a similar age for Keurusselkä, which is shown to be one of the oldest impact structures currently known in Europe and worldwide. © 2016 The Meteoritical Society.

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