Plan Bleu

Marseille, France

Plan Bleu

Marseille, France
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Ardoin-Bardin S.,IRD Montpellier | Milano M.,CNRS HydroSciences Montpellier Laboratory | Thivet G.,Plan Bleu | Servat E.,IRD Montpellier
IAHS-AISH Publication | Year: 2010

This study aims to assess the variability of surface water resources by 2080 over two main basins: Moulouya in Morocco and Bani in Mali. Simulations of flows are performed using the semi-lumped hydrological model GR2M and climate scenarios established from climatic models NCPCM and HadCM3 (SRES A2). The results show a clear trend of reduced rainfall over the Moulouya watershed, while the already-deficient rainfall conditions over the Bani catchment appear to be maintained. These conditions, together with a continuing increase in potential evapotranspiration and growing population pressure in both areas, suggest that surface runoff from these basins could be substantially reduced, especially during floods. Copyright © 2010 IAHS Press.

Spiteri C.,Deltares | Roddier-Quefelec C.,European Environment Agency | Giraud J.-P.,Plan Bleu | Hema T.,United Nations Environment Programme Mediterranean Action Plan UNEP MAP
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

The depollution of the Mediterranean Sea by 2020 is the overarching goal of Horizon 2020 Initiative (H2020). The first phase (2007-2013) tackled the main land-based pollution sources; municipal waste, urban wastewater and industrial emissions. As part of the H2020 roadmap implementation, the ENPI-SEIS project focused on the first H2020 review mechanism that included a) establishing a process for regular environmental reporting in the European Neighbourhood Policy South countries, and b) generating the knowledge necessary to assess the progress in depolluting the Mediterranean Sea. This paper reviews the process in line with the "Shared Environmental Information System" principles and its three pillars (content, cooperation, infrastructure). The main outcomes of the thematic assessment, based on a set of regional H2020 indicators, are also presented. This assessment highlights the major drivers and their implications on marine protection. It also identifies areas that require further attention in the next phase of H2020 (2014-2020). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Milano M.,UM2 | Ruelland D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Fernandez S.,Plan Bleu | Dezetter A.,IRD Montpellier | And 2 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Geoscience | Year: 2012

The Mediterranean basin has been identified as one of the world's most vulnerable regions to climatic and anthropogenic changes. A methodology accounting for the basin specific conditions is developed to assess the current and future water stress state of this region. The medium-term evolution of water stress is investigated using climatic scenarios and a water-use scenario based on efficiency improvements following the recommendations of the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development. Currently, the southern and eastern rims are experiencing high to severe water stress. By the 2050 horizon, a 30-50% decline in freshwater resources is simulated over most of the Mediterranean basin. While total water withdrawals would stabilize, or even decrease (10-40%), in several northern catchments, they would double in southern and eastern catchments. These changes should significantly increase water stress over the Mediterranean basin and exacerbate the disparities between rims. © 2012 Académie des sciences.

Milano M.,Montpellier University | Ruelland D.,Montpellier University | Fernandez S.,Plan Bleu | Dezetter A.,Montpellier University | And 5 more authors.
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2013

The Mediterranean basin has been identified as one of the world's regions most vulnerable to climatic and anthropogenic changes. A methodology accounting for the basin specific conditions is developed to assess the impacts of these changes on water resources. Based on global climate projections and water-use scenarios inspired by national reports, the current water stress state is addressed first and then it is explored for the medium-term. Currently, the southern and eastern rims are experiencing high to severe water stress. By the 2050 horizon, this stress could increase over the whole Mediterranean basin, notably because of a 30-50% decline in freshwater resources as a result of climate change. In addition, under a business-as-usual water-use scenario, total water withdrawals are projected to double on the southern and eastern rims. These worrying trends indicate the need to develop mitigation scenarios. In accord with the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development, an alternative water-use scenario based on improvements in the efficiency of water distribution networks and of irrigated agriculture is investigated. Such progress would stabilize total water withdrawals over the Mediterranean basin and even make them decrease (10-40%) in many northern catchments. Water stress could thus be tempered in some eastern catchments and remain low on the northern rim. This study highlights the importance of developing sustainable development strategies to cope with climatic and anthropogenic changes in order to explore their impacts at regional scales. It supports the need to focus on the most vulnerable areas within the Mediterranean basin. Editor Z.W. Kundzewicz Citation Milano, M., Ruelland, D., Fernandez, S., Dezetter, A., Fabre, J., Servat, E., Fritsch, J.-M., Ardoin-Bardin, S., and Thivet, G., 2013. Current state of Mediterranean water resources and future trends under climatic and anthropogenic changes. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 58 (3), 498-518. © 2013 Copyright 2013 IAHS Press.

Lacoue-Labarthe T.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Lacoue-Labarthe T.,CNRS Coastal and Marine Environment Laboratory | Nunes P.A.L.D.,Ecosystem Services Economic Unit | Nunes P.A.L.D.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Sciences | And 12 more authors.
Regional Studies in Marine Science | Year: 2016

Mediterranean Sea fisheries supply significant local and international markets, based largely on small pelagic fish, artisanal fisheries and aquaculture of finfish (mainly seabass and seabream) and shellfish (mussels and oysters). Fisheries and aquaculture contribute to the economy of countries bordering this sea and provide food and employment to coastal communities employing ca 600,000 people. Increasing temperatures and heat wave frequency are causing stress and mortality in marine organisms and ocean acidification is expected to worsen these effects, especially for bivalves and coralligenous systems. Recruitment and seed production present possible bottlenecks for shellfish aquaculture in the future since early life stages are vulnerable to acidification and warming. Although adult finfish seem able to withstand the projected increases in seawater CO2, degradation of seabed habitats and increases in harmful blooms of algae and jellyfish might adversely affect fish stocks. Ocean acidification should therefore be factored into fisheries and aquaculture management plans. Rising CO2 levels are expected to reduce coastal biodiversity, altering ecosystem functioning and possibly impacting tourism being the Mediterranean the world's most visited region. We recommend that ocean acidification is monitored in key areas of the Mediterranean Sea, with regular assessments of the likely socio-economic impacts to build adaptive strategies for the Mediterranean countries concerned. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Trottier J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Fernandez S.,Plan Bleu
Environment and History | Year: 2010

This article studies the aetiology underlying water management by exploring the social hermeneutics that determined its construction. It details how science, technology and political relations construct each other mutually, both producing and harnessing the scientific discourse on the environment. Supply management continues to prevail, in spite of contradictory claims, through the filiation process linking successive generations of water infrastructure. The case study of the Neste Canal inducing the construction of the Charlas Dam, allows the identification of three types of mechanisms participating in the construction of water deficits that now lead both proponents and opponents of dam construction to harness the environmental discourse. The first lies in the social construction of water science and technology. The second lies in the evolution of power relations among the various actors. The third lies in the insertion of the ' expert' within these power relations. © 2010 The White Horse Press.

Milano M.,UM2 | Ruelland D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Fernandez S.,Plan Bleu | Dezetter A.,IRD Montpellier | And 4 more authors.
IAHS-AISH Publication | Year: 2011

The Mediterranean basin is characterized by limited and unequally distributed water resources, as well as by important development of its anthropogenic activities. The latter has led to continuously increasing water withdrawals. Moreover, the region should be particularly affected by climate change, with rising temperatures and more frequent and intense drought periods affecting water resources availability. This paper assesses the impacts of those changes by investigating the current and future situation of both water availability and water withdrawals. Over the reference period (1971-1990), a conceptual rainfall-runoff gridded model was applied to evaluate freshwater availability, and an overview of agricultural and domestic water use was completed according to national reports. To evaluate the future trends in water availability at short (2025) and mid (2050) terms, climatic scenarios were generated by applying unbias and delta methods to projections from four global climate models. These climatic scenarios were used as inputs to the hydrological model but also to an irrigation management model to evaluate future agricultural water withdrawals. Domestic water use was estimated using demographic scenarios. For both sectors, progress in water-use efficiency was also considered. A water stress index accounting for those various indicators was then computed. The results show that both climate and socio-economic changes will have a significant impact on water resources. The Mediterranean basin might be subjected to a more arid climate and increasing local disparities. Some areas might experience increasing water stress. This study is a first step towards providing indicators combining water resources availability and water use in line with planning decisions at a regional level. Copyright © 2011 IAHS Press.

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