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Singh R.B.,The TsimTsoum Institute | Gupta S.,The TsimTsoum Institute | Dherange P.,The TsimTsoum Institute | de Meester F.,The TsimTsoum Institute | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

Recent research indicates an association between brain dysfunction and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To investigate this, we created a Medline search (up to December 2011) of articles in PubMed. The results indicated that refined carbohydrates, saturated and total fat, high levels of ω-6 fatty acids, and low levels of ω-3 fatty acids and other long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), all in conjunction with sedentary behaviour and mental stress can predispose to inflammation. Increased sympathetic activity, with increased secretion of catecholamine, cortisol, and serotonin can cause oxidative stress, which may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as the hypothalamus and macrophages, and the liver may release pro-inflammatory cytokines. These, in conjunction with an underlying deficiency in long chain PUFA, may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as neuropeptide-Y and pro-opiomelanocortin neurons and insulin receptors in the brain, especially during fetal life, infancy, and childhood, resulting in their dysfunction. Of the fatty acids in the brain, 30%-50% are long chain PUFA, which are incorporated in the cell membrane phospholipids. Hence, ω-3 fatty acids, which are also known to enhance parasympathetic activity and increase the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 as well as acetylcholine in the hippocampus, may be protective. Therefore, treatment with ω-3 fatty acids may be applied for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Source

Kormosh Z.,Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University | Savchuk T.,Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University | Bazel Y.,Pj Safaric University | Korolchuk S.,Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University | Gech A.,Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Electrochemistry

A simple, precise, rapid and low-cost potentiometric method for thedetermination of pentachlorophenol is proposed. A new pentachlorophenol-sensitive electrode was constructed by incorporating the pentachlorophenol ion pair complex with rhodamine 6G into graphite matrix. The electrode exhibited a linear response over the concentration range of 1×10-5 -5×10-2 mol/L, a detection limit of 1.7×10-6 (5.2×10 -5) mol/L with a Nernstian slope of 41±1 (68±1) mV/decade. The working pH range is 7.5-10.5. The electrode is easily constructed, has fast response time (3-10 s) and can be used for the period of six months without any considerable deterioration. The proposed sensor displays good sensitivity for pentachlorophenol. © 2011 by CEE. Source

Singh R.B.,Halberg Hospital and Research Institute | Fedacko J.,Pj Safaric University | Vargova V.,Pj Safaric University | Kumar A.,Government Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Acta Cardiologica

Introduction: The exact causes of death in India are not known because autopsy studies are difficult to conduct due to religious considerations. There are rapid changes in diet and lifestyle amongst social classes causing changes in the pattern of risk factors and mortality. In the present study, we attempt to develop a verbal autopsy questionnaire based on medical records and interview of a family member, for the assessment of causes of death, social class, tobacco consumption and dietary intakes among urban decedents in north India. Methods: For the period 1999-2001, we studied the randomly selected records of death of 2222 (1385 men and 837 women) decedents, aged 25-64 years, out of 3034 death records overall from the records at the Municipal Corporation, Moradabad. Families of these decedents were contacted individually to find out the causes of death, by scientist- administered, informed-consented, verbal autopsy questionnaire, completed with the help of the spouse and local treating doctor practicing in the appropriate health care region. Clinical data and causes of death were assessed by a questionnaire based on available hospital records and a modified WHO verbal autopsy questionnaire. Dietary intakes of the dead individuals were estimated by finding out the food intake of the spouse from 3-day dietary diaries and by asking probing questions about differences in food intake by the decedents. Tobacco consumption of the victim was studied by a questionnaire administered to family members. Social classes were assessed by a questionnaire based on attributes of per capita income, occupation, education, housing and ownership of consumer luxury items in the household. The diagnoses of overweight and obesity were based on the new WHO and International College of Nutrition criteria. Results: Cardiac diseases (23.4%, n = 520) including coronary artery disease (10%), valvular heart disease (7.2%, n = 160), diabetic heart disease (2.2%, n = 49), sudden cardiac death and inflammatory cardiac disease, each (2.0%, n = 44) were the most common causes of deaths as reported using the modified verbal autopsy questionnaire. Brain diseases including stroke (7.8%, n = 175) and inflammatory brain disease were reported amongst 1.9% (n = 42) victims. Thus, NCDs (37.0%, n = 651); circulatory diseases (31.2%, n = 695) including stroke and cardiac diseases, and malignant neoplasms (5.8%, n = 131) emerged as the most common causes of death. Injury and accidents (14.0%, n = 313) including fire, falls and poisonings were also common. Miscellaneous causes of death were observed amongst 8.5% (n = 189) of victims. Pregnancy and perinatal causes (0.72%, n = 15) were not commonly recorded in our study. Renal diseases (11.2%, n = 250), pulmonary diseases (22.3%, n = 495) and liver diseases (4.8%, n =107) were also commonly recorded causes of death. It is clear that causes of death related to various body systems can be more accurately assessed by the modified verbal autopsy questionnaire. Circulatory diseases as the cause of mortality were significantly more common among higher social classes (1-3) than in lower social classes (4 and 5) who died more often, due to infections. Death due to coronary disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes and obesity were significantly more common among higher social classes 1-3 and among victims with higher body mass index (BMI) compared to social class 4 and 5 who had lower BMI. Conclusions: This study indicates that causes of death, social class, tobacco and dietary intakes, can be accurately assessed by a modified verbal autopsy questionnaire based on medical records and by interview of family members. Circulatory diseases, injury-accidents and malignant diseases have become the major causes of death in India, apart from infections. Source

Vargova V.,Pj Safaric University | Pytliak M.,Pj Safaric University | Mechirova V.,Pj Safaric University
Current Enzyme Inhibition

The interaction between cells and extracellular matrix plays a key role in normal development and differentiation of the organism. Changes in extracellular matrix are regulated by the system of proteolytic enzymes that are responsible for proteolysis of many components of extracellular matrix. By regulating the composition and integrity of the extracellular matrix, this group of enzymes is essential for inducing processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent the main group of regulatory proteases in ECM. Their activity is regulated at multiple levels, including regulation of transcription, secretion, activation and inhibition. In particular, inhibition of MMP is carried out with the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase family - TIMPs. However, there is only a little knowledge about the prognostic impact of the TIMPs/matrix metalloproteinase complex in patients with future cardiovascular events or cardiovascular death. Atherosclerotic plaque formation occurs as a result of cellular migration and proliferation accompanied by an accumulation of ECM. MMP-2-dependent vascular degradation of extracellular matrix promotes smooth muscle cells migration and early plaque development. Immunocytochemistry, zymography and in situ hybridization studies have demonstrated an increased expression of different MMPs in human atherosclerotic plaques. Recent works have shown an increase of MMP-9 in unstable carotid plaques. Furthermore, a significant increase in circulating MMP-9 levels was observed in patients after myocardial infarction, patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy with evidence of ongoing spontaneous embolization and other cardiovascular events. MMP-8 has been implicated in atherosclerotic plaque destabilization through its capacity to thin the protecting fibrous cap, thus rendering it more vulnerable to rupture. Increased plaque MMP-8 activity has been observed in asymptomatic patients with plaque progression. Also, plaques prone to rupture express more immunoreactive MMP-8 compared with lesions with more stable morphology. On the other hand, TIMP-1 appears to play an important role in regulation of left ventricle structure and systolic function. Plasma TIMP-1 concentration is also increased in acute coronary syndrome and serum TIMP-1 is associated with the presence of carotid lesions as well. In the Framingham heart study, total TIMP-1 was related to major cardiovascular risk factors, in particular hypertension which may influence vascular and cardiac remodelling via extracellular matrix degradation. In the present article the authors offer an overview of possible mechanisms of action of MMPs and TIMPs and their predictive value in estimating the cardiovascular risk. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

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