Piyavate Hospital

Bangkok, Thailand

Piyavate Hospital

Bangkok, Thailand
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This paper reviews that cell-mediated-immune (CMI) activation and inflammation contribute to depressive symptoms, including anhedonia; anxiety-like behaviors; fatigue and somatic symptoms, e.g. illness behavior or malaise; and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). These effects are in part mediated by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), e.g. interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and Th-1-derived cytokines, such as IL-2 and interferon (IFN)γ. Moreover, new pathways, i.e. concomitants and sequels of CMI activation and inflammation, were detected in depression: (1) Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by IFNγ and some PICs is associated with depleted plasma tryptophan, which may interfere with brain 5-HT synthesis, and increased production of anxiogenic and depressogenic tryptophan catabolites. (2) Increased bacterial translocation may cause depression-like behaviors by activating the cytokine network, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways and IDO. (3) Induction of O&NS causes damage to membrane ω3 PUFAs, functional proteins, DNA and mitochondria, and autoimmune responses directed against intracellular molecules that may cause dysfunctions in intracellular signaling. (4) Decreased levels of ω3 PUFAs and antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, glutathione peroxidase or zinc, are associated with an increased inflammatory potential; more oxidative damage; the onset of specific symptoms; and changes in the expression or functions of brain 5-HT and N-methyl- d-aspartate receptors. (5) All abovementioned factors cause neuroprogression, that is a combination of neurodegeneration, neuronal apoptosis, and lowered neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. It is concluded that depression may be the consequence of a complex interplay between CMI activation and inflammation and their sequels/concomitants which all together cause neuroprogression that further shapes the depression phenotype. Future research should employ high throughput technologies to collect genetic and gene expression and protein data from patients with depression and analyze these data by means of systems biology methods to define the dynamic interactions between the different cell signaling networks and O&NS pathways that cause depression. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lucas K.,Sportzenkoppel 54 | Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital | Maes M.,Chulalongkorn University | Maes M.,International Reference Center | Maes M.,Deakin University
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2013

Activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex, a receptor of the innate immune system, may underpin the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including asthma, cardiovascular disorder, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disorders, neuroinflammatory disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, clinical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, alcohol abuse, and toluene inhalation. TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria. Here we focus on the environmental factors, which are known to trigger TLR4, e.g., ozone, atmosphere particulate matter, long-lived reactive oxygen intermediate, pentachlorophenol, ionizing radiation, and toluene. Activation of the TLR4 pathways may cause chronic inflammation and increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and oxidative and nitrosative stress and therefore TLR-related diseases. This implies that drugs or substances that modify these pathways may prevent or improve the abovementioned diseases. Here we review some of the most promising drugs and agents that have the potential to attenuate TLR-mediated inflammation, e.g., anti-LPS strategies that aim to neutralize LPS (synthetic anti-LPS peptides and recombinant factor C) and TLR4/MyD88 antagonists, including eritoran, CyP, EM-163, epigallocatechin-3- gallate, 6-shogaol, cinnamon extract, N-acetylcysteine, melatonin, and molecular hydrogen. The authors posit that activation of the TLR radical (ROS/RNS) cycle is a common pathway underpinning many "civilization" disorders and that targeting the TLR radical cycle may be an effective method to treat many inflammatory disorders. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Anderson G.,CRC | Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2013

In 1995, the macrophage-T lymphocyte theory of schizophrenia (Smith and Maes, 1995) considered that activated immuno-inflammatory pathways may account for the higher neurodevelopmental pathology linked with gestational infections through the detrimental effects of activated microglia, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway and consequent modulation of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and glutamate production. The aim of the present paper is to review the current state-of-the art regarding the role of the above pathways in schizophrenia. Accumulating data suggest a powerful role for prenatal infection, both viral and microbial, in driving an early developmental etiology to schizophrenia. Models of prenatal rodent infection show maintained activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways coupled to increased microglia activation. The ensuing activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways in schizophrenia may activate the TRYCAT pathway, including increased kynurenic acid (KA) and neurotoxic TRYCATs. Increased KA, via the inhibition of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, lowers gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA)ergic post-synaptic current, contributing to dysregulated glutamatergic activity. Hypofunctioning of the NMDAr on GABAergic interneurons will contribute to glutamatergic dysregulation. Many susceptibility genes for schizophrenia are predominantly expressed in early development and will interact with these early developmental driven changes in the immuno-inflammatory and TRYCAT pathways. Maternal infection and subsequent immuno-inflammatory responses are additionally associated with O&NS, including lowered antioxidants such as glutathione. This will contribute to alterations in neurogenesis and myelination. In such a scenario a) a genetic or epigenetic potentiation of immuno-inflammatory pathways may constitute a double hit on their own, stimulating wider immuno-inflammatory responses and thus potentiating the TRYCAT pathway and subsequent NMDAr dysfunction and neuroprogression; and b) antipsychotic-induced changes in immuno-inflammatory, TRYCAT and O&NS pathways would modulate the CNS glia-neuronal interactions that determine synaptic plasticity as well as myelin generation and maintenance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..


Morris G.,Tir Na Nog | Maes M.,Maes Clinics at TRIA | Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital
Metabolic Brain Disease | Year: 2013

This paper proposes a neuro-immune model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). A wide range of immunological and neurological abnormalities have been reported in people suffering from ME/CFS. They include abnormalities in proinflammatory cytokines, raised production of nuclear factor-κB, mitochondrial dysfunctions, autoimmune responses, autonomic disturbances and brain pathology. Raised levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), together with reduced levels of antioxidants are indicative of an immuno-inflammatory pathology. A number of different pathogens have been reported either as triggering or maintaining factors. Our model proposes that initial infection and immune activation caused by a number of possible pathogens leads to a state of chronic peripheral immune activation driven by activated O&NS pathways that lead to progressive damage of self epitopes even when the initial infection has been cleared. Subsequent activation of autoreactive T cells conspiring with O&NS pathways cause further damage and provoke chronic activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways. The subsequent upregulation of proinflammatory compounds may activate microglia via the vagus nerve. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines together with raised O&NS conspire to produce mitochondrial damage. The subsequent ATP deficit together with inflammation and O&NS are responsible for the landmark symptoms of ME/CFS, including post-exertional malaise. Raised levels of O&NS subsequently cause progressive elevation of autoimmune activity facilitated by molecular mimicry, bystander activation or epitope spreading. These processes provoke central nervous system (CNS) activation in an attempt to restore immune homeostatsis. This model proposes that the antagonistic activities of the CNS response to peripheral inflammation, O&NS and chronic immune activation are responsible for the remitting-relapsing nature of ME/CFS. Leads for future research are suggested based on this neuro-immune model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Anderson G.,CRC | Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital
Metabolic Brain Disease | Year: 2012

This paper reviews melatonin as an overlooked factor in the developmental etiology and maintenance of schizophrenia; the neuroimmune and oxidative pathophysiology of schizophrenia; specific symptoms in schizophrenia, including sleep disturbance; circadian rhythms; and side effects of antipsychotics, including tardive dyskinesia and metabolic syndrome. Electronic databases, i.e. PUBMED, Scopus and Google Scholar were used as sources for this review using keywords: schizophrenia, psychosis, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotics, metabolic syndrome, drug side effects and melatonin. Articles were selected on the basis of relevance to the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia. Melatonin levels and melatonin circadian rhythm are significantly decreased in schizophrenic patients. The adjunctive use of melatonin in schizophrenia may augment the efficacy of antipsychotics through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Further, melatoninwould be expected to improve sleep disorders in schizophrenia and side effects of anti-psychotics, such as tardive dyskinesia, metaboilic syndrome and hypertension. It is proposed that melatonin also impacts on the tryptophan catabolic pathway via its effect on stress response and cortisol secretion, thereby impacting on cortex associated cognition, amygdala associated affect and striatal motivational processing. The secretion of melatonin is decreased in schizophrenia, contributing to its etiology, pathophysiology and management. Melatonin is likely to have impacts on the metabolic side effects of anti-psychotics that contribute to subsequent decreases in life-expectancy. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Depression is a complex progressive disorder accompanied by activation of inflammatory and Th-1 driven pathways, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), lowered antioxidant levels, mitochondrial dysfunctions, neuroprogression and increased bacterial translocation. In depression, activation of immuno-inflammatory pathways is associated with an increased risk for cardio-vascular disorder (CVD). Because of the inflammatory component, the use of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors, such as celecoxib, has been advocated to treat depression. Electronic databases, i.e. PUBMED, Scopus and Google Scholar were used as sources for this selective review on the effects of COX-2 inhibitors aggravating the abovementioned pathways. COX-2 inhibitors may induce neuroinflammation, exacerbate Th1 driven responses, increase lipid peroxidation, decrease the levels of key antioxidants, damage mitochondria and aggravate neuroprogression. COX-2 inhibitors may aggravate bacterial translocation and CVD through Th1-driven mechanisms. COX-2 inhibitors may aggravate the pathophysiology of depression. Since Th1 and O&NS pathways are risk factors for CVD, the use of COX-2 inhibitors may further aggravate the increased risk for CVD in depression. Selectively targeting COX-2 may not be a viable therapeutic approach to treat depression. Multi-targeting of the different pathways that play a role in depression is more likely to yield good treatment results. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Background: In a recently published paper, Harvey and Wessely put forward a 'biopsychosocial' explanatory model for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), which is proposed to be applicable to (chronic) fatigue even when apparent medical causes are present.Methods: Here, we review the model proposed by Harvey and Wessely, which is the rationale for behaviourally oriented interventions, such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET), and compare this model with a biological model, in which inflammatory, immune, oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways are key elements.Discussion: Although human and animal studies have established that the pathophysiology of ME/CFS includes IO&NS pathways, these abnormalities are not included in the model proposed by Harvey and Wessely. Activation of IO&NS pathways is known to induce fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms and can be induced or maintained by viral and bacterial infections, physical and psychosocial stressors, or organic disorders such as (auto)immune disorders. Studies have shown that ME/CFS and major depression are both clinical manifestations of shared IO&NS pathways, and that both disorders can be discriminated by specific symptoms and unshared or differentiating pathways. Interventions with CBT/GET are potentially harmful for many patients with ME/CFS, since the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities may be intensified by physical stressors.Conclusions: In contrast to Harvey and Wessely's (bio)psychosocial model for ME/CFS a bio(psychosocial) model based upon IO&NS abnormalities is likely more appropriate to this complex disorder. In clinical practice, we suggest physicians should also explore the IO&NS pathophysiology by applying laboratory tests that examine the pathways involved. © 2010 Maes and Twisk; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Moylan S.,Deakin University | Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital | Wray N.R.,University of Queensland | Berk M.,Deakin University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2013

In some patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), individual illness characteristics appear consistent with those of a neuroprogressive illness. Features of neuroprogression include poorer symptomatic, treatment and functional outcomes in patients with earlier disease onset and increased number and length of depressive episodes. In such patients, longer and more frequent depressive episodes appear to increase vulnerability for further episodes, precipitating an accelerating and progressive illness course leading to functional decline. Evidence from clinical, biochemical and neuroimaging studies appear to support this model and are informing novel therapeutic approaches. This paper reviews current knowledge of the neuroprogressive processes that may occur in MDD, including structural brain consequences and potential molecular mechanisms including the role of neurotransmitter systems, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways, neurotrophins and regulation of neurogenesis, cortisol and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and epigenetic and dietary influences. Evidence-based novel treatments informed by this knowledge are discussed. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Maes M.,Piyavate Hospital | Twisk F.N.M.,Me Of Patinten Foundation | Ringel K.,Immunologische Laboratorien
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics | Year: 2012

Background: Depression is an inflammatory disorder while many authors declare myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) to be a functional disorder. The aim of the present study is to compare inflammatory and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses between depression and ME/CFS. Methods: We measured two proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in plasma, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and serum neopterin with a radioimmunoassay in controls, ME/CFS and depressive patients. Results: Plasma PICs were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression and higher in both patient groups than in controls. Increased PIC levels in depression were attributable to the presence of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms. Serum neopterin did not differ significantly between depression and ME/CFS but was higher in both patient groups than in controls. The significant positive correlations between neopterin and either IL-1 or TNF-α were significantly greater in depression than in ME/CFS. Conclusions: Since PICs cause depression-like behaviors and fatigue/malaise, we suggest that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS and depression. Increased neopterin also seems to contribute to the pathophysiology of both disorders. This study has detected a shared 'pathway phenotype', i.e. disorders in inflammatory and CMI pathways, which underpins both ME/CFS and depression and, therefore, may explain the co-occurrence of both disorders. ME/CFS and depression are discriminated from each other by increased PICs in ME/CFS and differences in the immune cell communication networks. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


There is much debate on the diagnostic classification of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue (CF). Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is stressed as a key feature. This study examines whether CF and CFS, with and without PEM, are distinct diagnostic categories.Fukuda's criteria were used to diagnose 144 patients with chronic fatigue and identify patients with CFS and CF, i.e. those not fulfilling the Fukuda's criteria. PEM was rated by means of a scale with defined scale steps between 0 and 6. CFS patients were divided into those with PEM lasting more than 24. h (labeled: ME) and without PEM (labeled: CFS). The 12-item Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (FF) Rating Scale was used to measure severity of illness. Plasma interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and lysozyme, and serum neopterin were employed as external validating criteria.Using fatigue, a subjective feeling of infection and PEM we found that ME, CFS, and CF were distinct categories. Patients with ME had significantly higher scores on concentration difficulties and a subjective experience of infection, and higher levels of IL-1, TNFα, and neopterin than patients with CFS. These biomarkers were significantly higher in ME and CFS than in CF patients. PEM loaded highly on the first two factors subtracted from the data set, i.e. "malaise-sickness" and "malaise-hyperalgesia".Fukuda's criteria are adequate to make a distinction between ME/CFS and CF, but ME/CFS patients should be subdivided into ME (with PEM) and CFS (without PEM). © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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