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Faridi Esfanjani A.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Pishro Food Technology Research Group
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2016

Phenolic compounds are major micronutrients in our diet,1 and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases is emerging. The easily destruction against environment stresses and low bioavailability of phenolics are main limitations of their application. Therefore, nano-encapsulated phenolics as a fine delivery system can solve their restrictions. Polymeric nanoparticles and natural nano-carriers are one of the most effective and industrial techniques which can be used for protection and delivery of phenolics. In this review, preparation, application and characterization of polymeric based nano-capsules and natural nano-carriers for phenolics have been considered and discussed including polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric complex nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, nano-caseins, nanocrystals, electrospun nano-fibers, electro-sprayed nano-particles, and nano-spray dried particles. Our main goal was to cover the relevant recent studies in the past few years. Although a number of different types of polymeric and natural based nano-scale delivery systems have been developed, there are relatively poor quantitative understanding of their in vivo absorption, permeation and release. Also, performing toxicity experiments, residual solvent analysis and studying their biological fate during digestion, absorption, and excretion of polymeric nanoparticle and natural nano-carriers containing phenolics should be considered in future researches. In addition, future investigations could focus on application of phenolic nano-scale delivery systems in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Khazaei K.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Golestan University of Medical Sciences | Jafari S.M.,Pishro Food Technology Research Group | And 3 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2016

Optimum extraction conditions of anthocyanins from petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) using acidified ethanol as the solvent were revealed. The investigated factors were solvent to sample ratio (20:1–80:1), ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (25–45 °C), and time (8–24 h). Response surface methodology with Box–Behnken design was applied to determine optimum processing conditions leading to maximum extraction efficiency (mg cyanindin-3-glucoside/l). Obtained coefficients of variance showed that the linear effect of temperature was more pronounced for extraction yield than three other variables at 5 % level. Optimum extraction conditions that maximize the extracted anthocyanins were found to be a ratio of solvents to sample 20 ml/g, ethanol concentration of 25.02 %, temperature 25.8 °C, and extraction time 24 h which gave 1609.11 mg/l anthocyanins. A quadratic regression equation describing the effects of independent process variables on anthocyanin extraction from saffron petals can be used for finding optimum conditions to achieve desired extraction yield in similar conditions. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Sarfarazi M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Sarfarazi M.,Pishro Food Technology Research Group | Jafari S.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Pishro Food Technology Research Group | Rajabzadeh G.,Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of picrocrocin, safranal, and crocin, three major ingredients of saffron. The process parameters included ethanol concentration (0–100 %), extraction time (2–7 h), and temperature (5–85 °C). The extracted compounds were measured spectrophotometrically at 257, 330, and 440 nm at which picrocrocin, safranal, and crocin had the maximum absorbance values, respectively. Four models including linear, linear squares, linear interactions, and full quadratic were fitted to the final data. As expected, the best model was the full quadratic with R2 values of 83.91, 86.60, and 92.42 % for the picrocrocin, safranal, and crocin contents, respectively. Our results indicated that high temperatures, short times, and moderate concentrations of ethanol had the superlative impact on the extraction efficiencies of the compounds. According to the response surface analysis, ethanol concentration of 33.33 %, extraction time of 2.0 h, and temperature of 85.0 °C were found to be as the optimum conditions of the process under which the empirical amounts of E1cm % 1λmax were 1,190.47 ± 154.45, 474.02 ± 95.00, and 2,311.68 ± 57.37 for the picrocrocin, safranal, and crocin contents, respectively. While the theoretical values for the same responses were 1,237.27, 652.08, and 2,821.23. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Esfanjani A.F.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Esfanjani A.F.,Pishro Food Technology Research Group | Jafari S.M.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Jafari S.M.,Pishro Food Technology Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2015

Abstract In this study, nano-particles of saffron extract (<100 nm) were encapsulated by spray drying. For this objective, the primary saffron water extract-in-oil (W/O) micro-emulsion containing 10% (w/w) saffron extract was re-emulsified in order to prepare W/O/W multiple emulsions, with a dispersed mass fraction of 0.25, and stabilized using protein (whey protein concentrate (WPC))/polysaccharide (pectin). Also, the encapsulation efficiency of crocin, picrocrocin and saffranal as core materials and surface characteristics of spray dried powders were investigated. Our results revealed that W/O/W multiple emulsions stabilized by sequential adsorption of WPC/pectin was the most efficient technique resulting in the better encapsulated efficiency for crocin, picrocrocin and saffranal, low yellow color (b∗) surface and, smooth surface in final powders, mainly due to fabrication of stable wall materials obtained by sequential adsorption of WPC and pectin. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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