Houston, TX, United States
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Conder R.J.,Aberdeen Group | Felton P.,Aberdeen Group | Smith R.,Global Solutions U.S. Inc. | Burke R.,Pipestream Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2010

The composite pipe system, known as XPipe™, uses high-performance adhesives to manufacture a metallic composite pipe. Both technical development and a robust manufacturing quality system are required to ensure the safe use of such novel technology. Several aspects are discussed in this paper. Firstly, the use of ultrahigh strength martensitic steels in a buried, cathodically protected environment requires an understanding of their susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. A series of slow strain rate and constant load tests was performed under polarised conditions to establish any reduction in ductility over samples tested in air. The results are presented and implications for their use in such a system are discussed. Secondly, although the technology to perform quality welds in thin walled austenitic materials using automated orbital techniques is well established, weld inspection by radiographic techniques is not preferred due to the continuous nature of the process and safety considerations. However, the inspection of such welds by ultrasonic techniques is challenging due to the coarse grained nature of the austenitic welds and the thinness of the liner, well below the 6mm normally considered the minimum for conventional weld inspection. Therefore, Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) requires optimized ultrasonic techniques. AUT capabilities and recommendations towards an optimal inspection concept will be discussed in this paper. Thirdly, the manufacture of the liner, ultra-high strength steel strip and adhesive into the XPipe™ composite pipe requires a robust manufacturing control system, which maintains traceability of the incoming materials and controls and records all the essential parameters during pipe production. This is achieved using a sophisticated SCADA system, using feedback from a variety of sensors. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


McKinnon C.,J P Kenny Pty Ltd. | Miles D.J.,Pipestream Inc. | Burke R.N.,Pipestream Inc.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2010

The composite pipe system, known as XPipe™, is a steel strip laminate technology which uses high-performance adhesives to manufacture a metallic composite pipe. It offers a new method of low cost pipeline construction suitable for onshore gas and oil pipelines in a variety of configurations. The pipe is based on a thin wall liner that provides the fluid containment, the material of which will vary according to service requirements. Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) coated martensitic ultra-high strength steel strips are then pre-formed and helically wound around the liner to form a laminated high strength reinforcing layer providing the pipe's hoop strength. These are bonded using an adhesive. Unlike conventional linepipe that is manufactured in a pipe mill away from the construction site, this lightweight composite pipe can be produced at the construction facility using a portable manufacturing line. All components of the manufacturing process fit within standard ISO containers each weighing between 5 and 15 tonnes. This allows for easy transportation via truck, and handling or shipping. Existing regulations and codes make no specific reference to metal composite pipes. They are mainly written for steel pipe lines with some mention of plastic pipe. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the following US onshore design codes (ASME B31.4/B31.8) and relevant regulations (CFR (DOT) 49 P192 /P195) in order to establish the applicability of these codes for use on XPipe. The paper describes how XPipe meets the code and regulation requirements with regard to safety, design, material, construction, inspection, testing, operation and maintenance. The paper will identify any areas where XPipe does not meet code and regulation requirements and describe the testing and /or design changes that have been made in order to meet the code requirements. The paper will focus on the how the XPipe can meet the practical requirements of these codes. The paper will describe how the qualification testing is being performed in accordance with DNV-RP-A203 Qualification Procedures for New Technology. The qualification testing focuses on how the XPipe meets or exceeds pipeline safety margins with regard to typical failure modes such as yield, burst, facture, fatigue, collapse, etc. This is a continuous process and is being updated after each step using the available knowledge on the status of the qualification Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Conder R.J.,Pipestream Inc. | Felton P.,Pipestream Inc. | Burke R.,Pipestream Inc. | Miles D.,Pipestream Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute Rio Pipeline Conference [IBP] (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 9/20-22/2011) Technica | Year: 2011

High strength martensitic carbon steel is being used as the external reinforcement for a novel composite pipeline. This system combines a thin wall corrosion resistant alloy with the martensitic steel reinforcement to produce a high pressure pipeline which is manufactured on site giving a lower cost alternative to conventional thick-wall pipelines. The same material also has been developed as an external reinforcement for existing pipelines. Near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of buried pipelines was widely reported in Canada in the 1980s. The cracking mechanism leads to formation of colonies of soil-side transgranular cracks in dilute groundwater environments containing dissolved carbon dioxide. The corrosion occurs under disbonded coatings, which limits the effectiveness of the pipeline cathodic protection system. A test programme has been carried out to evaluate the environmental cracking resistance of the reinforcement to near-neutral pH SCC. Electrochemical polarisation tests were undertaken to determine the behaviour of the martensitic steel in NS-4 simulated groundwater. SCC resistance of the uncoated steel at the free corrosion potential was then established by slow strain rate testing.


Venero N.J.,Pipestream Inc. | Bond T.J.M.,Pipestream Inc. | Burke R.N.,Pipestream Inc. | Miles D.J.,Pipestream Inc.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2010

A new technology for external rehabilitation of pipelines, known as XHab™, has been developed. This method involves wrapping multiple layers of ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) strip in a helical form continuously over an extended length of pipeline using a dedicated forming and wrapping machine. The reinforcement afforded by the strip can be used to bring a defective section of pipe (e.g. externally corroded or dented) back to its original allowable operating conditions, or even to increase the allowable operating pressure if the desired operating conditions exceed the original pipeline design limits. This paper describes the design, manufacture and testing process for a self-propelled wrapping machine for in-field rehabilitation. The wrapping apparatus consists of several major components including an opening sufficiently wide to receive the pipe, a movement assembly, a winding head, a preforming device, an accumulator and an oscillating adhesive applicator. The wrapping apparatus uses the winding head to wrap the reinforcing steel strip around the pipe. The movement assembly uses a pair of tracks in contact with the pipe to drive the wrapping apparatus along which enables helical wrapping of the reinforcing strip material. The oscillating adhesive assembly applies structural adhesive to the pipe immediately before the strip is wound. The winding head, motive assembly and adhesive applicator are electronically synchronized to one another to enable precise control of pitch and adhesive volume. The paper also describes the field application of XHab including mobilization/demobilization of equipment and interaction with other rehabilitation equipment, as well as specific aspects such as initiation and termination of wrapping, protection of rehabilitated area and implementation of cathodic protection. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Miles D.J.,Pipestream Inc. | Bond T.J.M.,Pipestream Inc. | Burke R.N.,Pipestream Inc. | Van Schalkwijk R.,RvS Engineering
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2010

A new technology for external rehabilitation of pipelines, known as XHab™, has been developed. This method involves wrapping multiple layers of ultra-high strength steel strip (UHSS) in a helical form continuously over an extended length of pipeline using a dedicated forming and wrapping machine. The reinforcement afforded by the strip can be used to bring a defective section of pipe (e.g. externally corroded or dented) back to its original allowable operating conditions, or even to increase the allowable operating pressure if the desired operating conditions exceed the original pipeline design limits. This paper describes the full scale burst testing and analysis of defective pipes which have been repaired using the XHab process. The full scale test sections are 30" × 0.5" API 5L X52 DSAW pipe and include the following specimens: • Bare pipe with no defects; • Bare pipe with single machined defect; • Wrapped pipe with single machined defect and designed reinforcement; • Wrapped pipe with single machined defect and insufficient reinforcement; • Wrapped pipe with interacting defect array and designed reinforcement The above full scale burst tests are supplemented by FEA models using ABAQUS. The material models for the steel pipe, UHSS strip, defect patch material and strip adhesive are based on measured data from the batch tests and tuned against the control burst test results. The structural behavior in the individual metallic and non-metallic elements can therefore be examined more closely, particularly in the region of the defect and where the wrapped strip crosses seam and girth welds. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Venero N.J.,Pipestream Inc. | Ody T.,Pipestream Inc. | Burke R.N.,Pipestream Inc. | Miles D.J.,Pipestream Inc.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2010

The composite pipe system, known as XPipe™, is a steel strip laminate technology which uses high-performance adhesives to manufacture a metallic composite pipe. It offers a new method of low cost pipeline construction suitable for onshore gas and oil pipelines in a variety of configurations. The pipe is based on a thin wall liner that provides the fluid containment, the material of which will vary according to service requirements. Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) coated martensitic ultra-high strength steel strips are then pre-formed and helically wound around the liner to form a laminated high strength reinforcing layer providing the pipe's hoop strength. These are bonded using an adhesive. Unlike conventional linepipe that is manufactured in a pipe mill away from the construction site, this lightweight composite pipe can be produced at the construction facility using a portable manufacturing line. All components of the manufacturing process fit within standard ISO containers each weighing between 5 and 15 tonnes. This allows for easy transportation via truck, and handling or shipping. This paper describes the Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) and subsequent Site Integration Test (SIT) of the containerised pipe manufacturing facility. The FAT was performed in factory conditions in Rome, NY (December 2008) and demonstrated acceptable operation of the complete pipe production line. For the SIT, a site in Houston, TX was chosen which would be broadly representative of in-field conditions. The SIT was performed between April and June 2009 and demonstrated acceptable in-field operation of the pipe production system. The paper also describes the results of full-scale testing performed on pipe produced during the SIT and FAT, including burst, tension and cyclic pressure testing pipe sections. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.


Miles D.J.,Pipestream Inc.
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2012

A solution, known as XHab", has been developed for external repair and reinforcement of pipelines using ultra high strength steel strip. This method involves wrapping multiple layers of strip in a helical form continuously over an extended length of pipeline using a dedicated forming and wrapping machine. The reinforcement provided by the strip can be used to: a) Restore the original maximum allowable operating pressure to a section of defective pipe (e.g. external corrosion or denting), or; b) Reinforce an intact but de-rated section of pipeline (e.g. a Location Class change through encroachment) to maintain reduced hoop stress in the base pipe as required by codes and regulations, but allow reinstatement of the original operating pressure by carrying the additional load in the strips. This paper describes the full-scale qualification testing, including in-field proving runs, and design analysis necessary to demonstrate the field-readiness of the application system and reinforcement product. This includes wrapping and pressure testing of pipe with machined external wall defects. The potential for XHab repair of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is also discussed for an upcoming series of tests on pipe samples with electrical discharge machined notches. To demonstrate reinforcement of intact pipe, a 40ft joint of 26-inch vintage flash-butt seam welded pipe, instrumented with hoop and axial strain gages, has been wrapped by the XHab machine with sufficient reinforcement to simulate a change from Location Class 1, Div. 2 to Location Class 3 (ASME B31.8). This pipe has been subjected to pressure cycling and ultimate burst alongside an identical unwrapped pipe sample which provides a baseline. The test results are presented and compared to finite element analysis. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.


Conder R.J.,Aberdeen Group | Felton P.,Aberdeen Group | Burke R.,Pipestream Inc. | Dent P.,Exova Ltd.
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2010

High strength carbon steels are being used as the external reinforcement for a novel composite pipeline. This system combines a thin wall corrosion resistant alloy with the reinforcement to produce a high pressure pipeline which is manufactured on site giving a lower cost alternative to conventional thick-wall pipelines. Despite the widely known susceptibility of high strength ferritic-bainitic carbon steels to hydrogen embrittlement, there is little published data on the hydrogen embrittlement behaviour of martensitic carbon steels. Therefore, a series of tests was performed to establish the risk of cracking in a buried condition where cathodic protection is applied. Tests were performed to establish the plateau hydrogen content and the hydrogen flux under various charging conditions, and then a series of slow strain rate and constant load tests performed under polarised conditions to establish any reduction in ductility over samples tested in air. Microscopy analysis of the fracture surfaces was performed to identify any change in the fracture morphology. A stressed full ring test of a sample of the composite pipeline was also tested under simulated cathodic protection conditions. The results of this testing are discussed and the implications for the use of this novel composite pipeline system evaluated. ©2010 by NACE International.


Bond T.J.M.,Pipestream Inc. | Miles D.J.,Aberdeen Group | Burke R.N.,Pipestream Inc. | Venero N.J.,Pipestream Inc.
Global Pipeline Monthly | Year: 2010

EXTERNAL CORROSION of steel pipelines leads to reduced pipe wall thickness and associated pipeline strength. In severely-corroded cases, operators are required to reduce the operating pressure, and hence the product flow rate, to remain with safe working limits of the defective pipe. A method for rehabilitating externally-corroded pipelines has been developed that allows pipelines, which are operating at reduced pressures and flow rates, to be reinstated to their original operating conditions. This method involves wrapping multiple layers of ultra-high strength steel (UHSS) in helical form, over a pipeline - where the loss of wall thickness can be up to 80% of the nominal. Using bellhole excavations, extended sections of externally-corroded onshore pipelines are exposed for cleaning and blasting before overwrapping with UHSS strip, bringing the defective pipeline back to full operating conditions, whilst it remains in service. In this paper, a novel method of pipeline rehabilitation is described, together with the results of evaluation tests of this technology. The authors conclude that the use of UHSS strip is a viable method of rehabilitating externally-corroded steel pipelines.

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