Pipestone Veterinary Clinic

Pipestone, MN, United States

Pipestone Veterinary Clinic

Pipestone, MN, United States

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Pitkin A.,Swine Disease Eradication Center | Otake S.,Swine Disease Eradication Center | Dee S.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2011

This paper summarizes observations recorded over a 4-year (1438-day) period regarding the ability of a l-night period of downtime to prevent mechanical spread of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae between pig populations by personnel and fomites.


Goede D.,University of Minnesota | Murtaugh M.P.,University of Minnesota | Nerem J.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | Yeske P.,Swine Vet Center | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2015

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) infected approximately 50% of the US swine breeding herds from July 2013 to July 2014 as estimated by the Swine Health Monitoring Project. In the absence of effective vaccines or standard control protocols, there is an urgent need for evidence of cross-protective immune countermeasures. Here, we evaluated the response of 3-day-old piglets born to sows exposed seven months earlier to a mild strain of PEDv to challenge with a virulent PEDv isolate. Piglet survival to one week of age was 100% compared to 67% in piglets born to sows not previously exposed, and morbidity was 43% compared to 100%, respectively. At necropsy at 7 days of age, the PEDv Ct value was 23.6 (range 16.6-30.6) in intestinal contents, compared to 17.2 (range 15.9-18.5) (. p<. 0.06) in litters from sows with no previous exposure to PEDv. The findings indicated that durable lactogenic immunity was present in sows previously exposed to a mild strain of PEDv and this immunity induced cross-protection to representative virulent PEDv. Thus, a naturally attenuated form of PEDv provided significant passive immune protection for seven months against piglet challenge with virulent PEDv. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Alonso C.,University of Minnesota | Murtaugh M.P.,University of Minnesota | Dee S.A.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | Davies P.R.,University of Minnesota
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most economically significant pathogen in the US swine industry. Aerosol transmission among herds is a major concern in pig dense regions and filtration of incoming air, in combination with standard biosecurity procedures, has been demonstrated to prevent transmission of PRRSV into susceptible herds. To quantify the impact of air filtration on reducing risk of PRRSV outbreaks, we compared the incidence rate of new PRRSV introductions in 20 filtered and 17 non-filtered control sow herds in a swine dense region of North America during a 7. year study period. Events of novel virus introduction were ascertained by phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV ORF5 gene sequences. Putative new viruses were defined as exogenous (introduced) based on ORF5 nucleotide sequence differences compared to previous farm isolates. The influence of sequence difference cut-off values ranging from 2 to 10% on case definition and relative risk were evaluated. Non-filtered farms incurred about 0.5 outbreaks per year, with a seasonal increase in risk in cooler periods. Baseline risk, prior to filtration, in treatment farms was approximately 0.75 per year, approximately 50% higher than in control farms. Air filtration significantly reduced risk of PRRSV introduction events to 0.06-0.22 outbreaks per year, depending on the cut-off values used to classify a virus isolate as new to the herd. Overall, air filtration led to an approximately 80% reduction in risk of introduction of novel PRRSV, indicating that on large sow farms with good biosecurity in swine-dense regions, approximately four-fifths of PRRSV outbreaks may be attributable to aerosol transmission. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Linhares D.C.L.,University of Minnesota | Cano J.P.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Wetzell T.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Nerem J.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

There are ongoing efforts to eliminate porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) from regions in the United States swine industry. However, an important challenge for the accomplishment of those efforts is the re-infection of pig units due to the area spread of PRRSv. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRRS modified-live virus vaccine (MLV) on viral shedding and on dynamics of PRRSv infection in pig populations raised under commercial conditions. The study composed of two rooms of 1000 pigs each. Ten percent of pigs of each room were inoculated with a field isolate of PRRSv. Rooms had separate air spaces and strict scientifically validated biosecurity protocols were adopted to avoid movement of pathogens between rooms. At 8 and 36. dpi (days post inoculation), all pigs of the challenge-vaccine group were inoculated with a MLV vaccine. Pigs of the challenge-control group were placebo-inoculated. Blood and oral fluid samples were collected from each room at 0, 8, 36, 70, 96 and 118. dpi for PRRSv RNA detection using PCR. PRRSv-antibodies were also screened from blood serum samples with a commercially available ELISA test. Additionally, tonsil scraping samples were collected from both groups at 70, 96 and 118. dpi. Moreover, air samples were collected 6 times per week from 0 to 118. dpi and were tested for PRRSv RNA using qPCR assay. There was no difference in the PRRSv infection dynamics measured as duration and magnitude of viremia and seroconversion. Also, there was no difference in the frequency of tonsil scraping samples PRRSv-positive by PCR. However, the challenge-vaccine group had significantly less PRRSv shed compared to the challenge-control group. The challenge-vaccine group had significant less PRRSv-positive oral fluids at 36. dpi. Moreover, the challenge-vaccine group had significant reduction in the cumulative PRRSv shed in the air. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Schelkopf A.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | Nerem J.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | Cowles B.,Zoetis Inc. | Amodie D.,Zoetis Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

The study evaluated the safety of a modified live-virus (MLV) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine in susceptible, pregnant gilts. To simulate inadvertent exposure secondary to postvaccination shedding of PRRS-MLV, seronegative gilts ( n= 51) were exposed by IM vaccination at 90 days of gestation. Vaccinated and nonvaccinated, seronegative control gilts ( n= 25) were maintained in separate facilities. The PRRS-MLV vaccine was given in a 2. mL dose on day 0. On day 7 all vaccinated gilts were PRRSV-PCR-positive for PRRSV and had responded serologically as determined by an ELISA. All control gilts remained PRRSV-PCR- and ELISA-negative throughout the study. Abortions did not occur in gilts from either group. The difference between vaccinated and control gilts in average number of piglets per litter (12.43 and 12.16, respectively), number of live births per litter (11.21 and 11.54), and mean piglet birth weight (3.22 and 3.26 lbs) were not significantly different. Piglets in the control group had significantly greater average daily gain versus piglets from vaccinated gilts (0.52 vs. 0.46 lbs, P<. 0.0001). Preweaning mortality was significantly greater ( P= 0.0023) in piglets from the vaccinated gilts (19.7% vs. 10.9%). A single gilt accounted for 18.2% of stillbirths in the vaccinated group. Air samples were borderline PRRSV-PCR-positive for PRRSV on days 29 and 32, after more than 98% of gilts had farrowed. Results demonstrated that vaccination of pregnant gilts at the time of peak fetal susceptibility was non-abortigenic and that the PRRS-MLV agent did not significantly affect reproductive outcomes. Lower ADG in piglets from vaccinated gilts may be due to PRRS-MLV viremia following transplacental or post-farrowing exposure. Air sampling results indicated that environmental contamination with PRRS-MLV shed from vaccinated gilts was minimal. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Corzo C.A.,University of Minnesota | Culhane M.,University of Minnesota | Dee S.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | Morrison R.B.,University of Minnesota | Torremorell M.,University of Minnesota
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m3 of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m3 of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m3. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. © 2013 Corzo et al.


Alonso C.,University of Minnesota | Davies P.R.,University of Minnesota | Polson D.D.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Dee S.A.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | Lazarus W.F.,University of Minnesota
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7. km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Dee S.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | Dee S.,University of Minnesota | Cano J.P.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Spronk G.,Pipestone Veterinary Clinic | And 4 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2012

Airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a risk factor for the infection of susceptible populations. Therefore, a long-term sustainability study of air filtration as a means to reduce this risk was conducted. Participating herds (n = 38) were organized into 4 independent cohorts and the effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections was analyzed at 3 different levels from September 2008 to January 2012 including the likelihood of infection in contemporary filtered and non-filtered herds, the likelihood of infection before and after implementation of filtration and the time to failure in filtered and non-filtered herds. Results indicated that new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds were significantly lower than in contemporary non-filtered control herds (P < 0.01), the odds for a new PRRSV infection in breeding herds before filtration was 7.97 times higher than the odds after filtration was initiated (P < 0.01) and the median time to new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds of 30 months was significantly longer than the 11 months observed in non-filtered herds (P < 0.01). In conclusion, across all 3 levels of analysis, the long-term effect of air filtration on reducing the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in the study population was demonstrated. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a risk factor for the infection of susceptible populations. Therefore, a longterm sustainability study of air filtration as a means to reduce this risk was conducted. Participating herds (n = 38) were organized into 4 independent cohorts and the effect of air filtration on the occurrence of new PRRSV infections was analyzed at 3 different levels from September 2008 to January 2012 including the likelihood of infection in contemporary filtered and non-filtered herds, the likelihood of infection before and after implementation of filtration and the time to failure in filtered and non-filtered herds. Results indicated that new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds were significantly lower than in contemporary non-filtered control herds (P < 0.01), the odds for a new PRRSV infection in breeding herds before filtration was 7.97 times higher than the odds after filtration was initiated (P < 0.01) and the median time to new PRRSV infections in filtered breeding herds of 30 months was significantly longer than the 11 months observed in non-filtered herds (P < 0.01). In conclusion, across all 3 levels of analysis, the long-term effect of air filtration on reducing the occurrence of new PRRSV infections in the study population was demonstrated.


The study evaluated the safety of a modified live-virus (MLV) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine in susceptible, pregnant gilts. To simulate inadvertent exposure secondary to postvaccination shedding of PRRS-MLV, seronegative gilts (n=51) were exposed by IM vaccination at 90 days of gestation. Vaccinated and nonvaccinated, seronegative control gilts (n=25) were maintained in separate facilities. The PRRS-MLV vaccine was given in a 2mL dose on day 0. On day 7 all vaccinated gilts were PRRSV-PCR-positive for PRRSV and had responded serologically as determined by an ELISA. All control gilts remained PRRSV-PCR- and ELISA-negative throughout the study. Abortions did not occur in gilts from either group. The difference between vaccinated and control gilts in average number of piglets per litter (12.43 and 12.16, respectively), number of live births per litter (11.21 and 11.54), and mean piglet birth weight (3.22 and 3.26 lbs) were not significantly different. Piglets in the control group had significantly greater average daily gain versus piglets from vaccinated gilts (0.52 vs. 0.46 lbs, P<0.0001). Preweaning mortality was significantly greater (P=0.0023) in piglets from the vaccinated gilts (19.7% vs. 10.9%). A single gilt accounted for 18.2% of stillbirths in the vaccinated group. Air samples were borderline PRRSV-PCR-positive for PRRSV on days 29 and 32, after more than 98% of gilts had farrowed. Results demonstrated that vaccination of pregnant gilts at the time of peak fetal susceptibility was non-abortigenic and that the PRRS-MLV agent did not significantly affect reproductive outcomes. Lower ADG in piglets from vaccinated gilts may be due to PRRS-MLV viremia following transplacental or post-farrowing exposure. Air sampling results indicated that environmental contamination with PRRS-MLV shed from vaccinated gilts was minimal.

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