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Lin N.U.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Winer E.P.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Wheatley D.,Royal Cornwall Hospital | Carey L.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 12 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Afatinib is an oral, ErbB family blocker, which covalently binds and irreversibly blocks all kinase-compe-tent ErbB family members. This phase II, open-label, singlearm study explored afatinib activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients progressing after trastuzumab treatment. Patients had stage IIIB/IV HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, with progression following trastuzumab or trastuzumab intolerance and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2. Patients received 50 mg afatinib once-daily until disease progression. Primary endpoint was objective response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0), with tumor assessments every 8 weeks. Forty-one patients were treated. Patients had received a median of three prior chemotherapy lines (range, 0-15) and 68.3% had received trastuzumab for >1 year.Four patients (10% of 41 treated; 11% of evaluable patients) had partial response. Fifteen patients (37% of 41) had stable disease as best response and 19 (46% of 41) achieved clinical benefit. Median progression-free survival was 15.1 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1-16.7); median overall survival was 61.0 weeks (95% CI: 56.7-not evaluable). Most frequent common terminology criteria for adverse events grade 3 treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (24.4%) and rash (9.8%). Afatinib monotherapy was associated with promising clinical activity in extensively pretreated HER2-positive breast cancer patients who had progressed following trastuzumab treatment. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Matulonis U.A.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Sharma S.,Hinsdale Hospital | Ghamande S.,Georgia Regents University | Gordon M.S.,Pinnacle Oncology Hematology | And 8 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2012

Objectives: Aurora A kinase (AAK), a key mitotic regulator, is implicated in the pathogenesis of several tumors, including ovarian cancer. This single-arm phase II study assessed single-agent efficacy and safety of the investigational AAK inhibitor MLN8237 (alisertib), in patients with platinum-refractory or -resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods: Adult women with malignant, platinum-treated disease received MLN8237 50 mg orally twice daily for 7 days plus 14 days' rest (21-day cycles). The primary endpoint was combined objective tumor response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and/or CA-125 criteria. Secondary endpoints included response duration, clinical benefit rate, progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP), and safety. Results: Thirty-one patients with epithelial ovarian (n = 25), primary peritoneal (n = 5), and fallopian tube carcinomas (n = 1) were enrolled. Responses of 6.9-11.1 month duration were observed in 3 (10%) patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Sixteen (52%) patients achieved stable disease with a mean duration of response of 2.86 months and which was durable for ≥ 3 months in 6 (19%). Median PFS and TTP were 1.9 months. Most common drug-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events were neutropenia (42%), leukopenia (23%), stomatitis, and thrombocytopenia (each 19%); 6% reported febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: These data suggest that MLN8237 has modest single-agent antitumor activity and may produce responses and durable disease control in some patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. MLN8237 is currently undergoing evaluation in a phase I/II trial with paclitaxel in recurrent ovarian cancer.


Rosen L.S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Hurwitz H.I.,Duke University | Wong M.K.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Wong M.K.,University of Southern California | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: TRC105 is a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds CD105 (endoglin). This first-in-human, phase I, open-label study assessed safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of TRC105 in patients with advanced refractory solid tumors. Patients and Methods: Patients received escalating doses of intravenous TRC105 until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity using a standard 3 + 3 phase I design. Results: Fifty patients were treated with escalating doses of TRC105. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was exceeded at 15 mg/kg every week because of dose-limiting hypoproliferative anemia. TRC105 exposure increased with increasing dose, and continuous serum concentrations that saturate CD105 receptors were maintained at 10 mg/kg weekly (the MTD) and 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Common adverse events including anemia, telangiectasias, and infusion reactions reflected the mechanism of action of the drug. Antibodies to TRC105 were not detected in patients treated with TRC105 from Chinese hamster ovary cells being used in ongoing phase Ib and phase II studies. Stable disease or better was achieved in 21 of 45 evaluable patients (47%), including two ongoing responses at 48 and 18 months. Conclusion: TRC105 was tolerated at 10 mg/kg every week and 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks, with a safety profile that was distinct from that of VEGF inhibitors. Evidence of clinical activity was seen in a refractory patient population. Ongoing clinical trials are testing TRC105 in combination with chemotherapy and VEGF inhibitors and as a single agent in prostate, ovarian, bladder, breast, and hepatocellular cancer. ©2012 AACR.


Herbst R.S.,Yale University | Soria J.-C.,Gustave Roussy South Paris University | Kowanetz M.,Genentech | Fine G.D.,Genentech | And 18 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

The development of human cancer is a multistep process characterized by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive or reflect tumour progression. These changes distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, allowing tumours to be recognized as foreign by the immune system1-4. However, tumours are rarely rejected spontaneously, reflecting their ability to maintain an immunosuppressive microenvironment5. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1 or CD274), which is expressed on many cancer and immune cells, plays an important part in blocking the 'cancer immunity cycle' by binding programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B7.1 (CD80), both of which are negative regulators of T-lymphocyte activation. Binding of PD-L1 to its receptors suppresses T-cell migration, proliferation and secretion of cytotoxic mediators, and restricts tumour cell killing6-10. The PD-L1-PD-1 axis protects the host from overactive T-effector cells not only in cancer but also during microbial infections11. Blocking PD-L1 should therefore enhance anticancer immunity, but little is known about predictive factors of efficacy. This study was designed to evaluate the safety, activity and biomarkers of PD-L1 inhibition using the engineered humanized antibody MPDL3280A. Here we show that across multiple cancer types, responses (as evaluated by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1) were observed in patients with tumours expressing high levels of PD-L1, especially when PD-L1 was expressed by tumour-infiltrating immune cells. Furthermore, responses were associated with T-helper type 1 (TH 1) gene expression, CTLA4 expression and the absence of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in baseline tumour specimens. Together, these data suggest that MPDL3280A is most effective in patients in which pre-existing immunity is suppressed by PD-L1, and is re-invigorated on antibody treatment. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Falchook G.S.,University of Houston | Lewis K.D.,Aurora University | Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Gordon M.S.,Pinnacle Oncology Hematology | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: MEK is a member of the MAPK signalling cascade that is commonly activated in melanoma. Direct inhibition of MEK blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. We aimed to analyse safety, efficacy, and genotyping data for the oral, small-molecule MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with melanoma. Methods: We undertook a multicentre, phase 1 three-part study (dose escalation, cohort expansion, and pharmacodynamic assessment). The main results of this study are reported elsewhere; here we present data relating to patients with melanoma. We obtained tumour samples to assess BRAF mutational status, and available tissues underwent exploratory genotyping analysis. Disease response was measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and adverse events were defined by common toxicity criteria. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00687622. Findings: 97 patients with melanoma were enrolled, including 81 with cutaneous or unknown primary melanoma (36 BRAF mutant, 39 BRAF wild-type, six BRAF status unknown), and 16 with uveal melanoma. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash or dermatitis acneiform (n=80; 82%) and diarrhoea (44; 45%), most of which were grade 2 or lower. No cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas were recorded. Of 36 patients with BRAF mutations, 30 had not received a BRAF inhibitor before; two complete responses (both confirmed) and ten partial responses (eight confirmed) were noted in this subgroup (confirmed response rate, 33%). Median progression-free survival of this subgroup was 5·7 months (95% CI 4·0-7·4). Of the six patients who had received previous BRAF inhibition, one unconfirmed partial response was recorded. Of 39 patients with BRAF wild-type melanoma, four partial responses were confirmed (confirmed response rate, 10%). Interpretation: Our data show substantial clinical activity of trametinib in melanoma and suggest that MEK is a valid therapeutic target. Differences in response rates according to mutations indicate the importance of mutational analyses in the future. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Fecher L.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Falchook G.S.,University of Houston | Nallapareddy S.,Aurora University | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Inhibition of MEK stops cell proliferation and induces apoptosis; therefore, this enzyme is a key anticancer target. Trametinib is a selective, orally administered MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor. We aimed to define the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of trametinib and to assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and response rate in individuals with advanced solid tumours. Methods: We undertook a multicentre phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumours and adequate organ function. The study was in three parts: dose escalation to define the maximum tolerated dose; identification of the recommended phase 2 dose; and assessment of pharmacodynamic changes. Intermittent and continuous dosing regimens were analysed. Blood samples and tumour biopsy specimens were taken to assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Adverse events were defined with common toxicity criteria, and tumour response was measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00687622. Findings: We enrolled 206 patients (median age 58·5 years, range 19-92). Dose-limiting toxic effects included rash (n=2), diarrhoea (n=1), and central serous retinopathy (n=2). The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash or dermatitis acneiform (n=165; 80%) and diarrhoea (87; 42%), most of which were grade 1 and 2. The maximum tolerated dose was 3 mg once daily and the recommended phase 2 dose was 2 mg a day. The effective half-life of trametinib was about 4 days. At the recommended phase 2 dose, the exposure profile of the drug showed low interpatient variability and a small peak:trough ratio of 1·81. Furthermore, mean concentrations in plasma were greater than the preclinical target concentration throughout the dosing interval. Pathway inhibition and clinical activity were seen, with 21 (10%) objective responses recorded. Interpretation: The recommended phase 2 dose of 2 mg trametinib once a day is tolerable, with manageable side-effects. Trametinib's inhibition of the expected target and clinical activity warrants its further development as a monotherapy and in combination. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Bendell J.C.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute | Gordon M.S.,Pinnacle Oncology Hematology | Hurwitz H.I.,Duke University | Jones S.F.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: The angiogenesis inhibitor dalantercept (formerly ACE-041) is a soluble form of activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK1) that prevents activation of endogenous ALK1 by bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP9) and BMP10 and exhibits antitumor activity in preclinical models. This first-in-human study of dalantercept evaluated its safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity in adults with advanced solid tumors. Experimental Design: Patients in dose-escalating cohorts received dalantercept subcutaneously at one ofseven dose levels (0.1-4.8 mg/kg) every 3 weeks until disease progression. Patients in an expansion cohortreceived dalantercept at 0.8 or 1.6 mg/kg every 3 weeks until disease progression. Results: In 37 patients receiving dalantercept, the most common treatment-related adverse events were peripheral edema, fatigue, and anemia. Edema and fluid retention were dose-limiting toxicities and responded to diuretic therapy. No clinically significant, treatment-related hypertension, proteinuria, gross hemorrhage, or gastrointestinal perforations were observed. One patient with refractory squamous cell cancer of the head and neck had a partial response, and 13 patients had stable disease according to RECISTv1.1, eight of whom had prolonged periods (≥12 weeks) of stable disease. Correlative pharmacodynamic markers included tumor metabolic activity and tumor blood flow, which decreased from baseline in 63% and 82% of evaluable patients, respectively, and telangiectasia in eight patients. Conclusion: Dalantercept was well-tolerated at doses up to 1.6 mg/kg, with a safety profile distinct from inhibitors of the VEGF pathway. Dalantercept displayed promising antitumor activity in patients with advanced refractory cancer, and multiple phase II studies are underway. Clin Cancer Res; 20(2); 480-9. © 2013 AACR.


Rosen L.S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Gordon M.S.,Pinnacle Oncology Hematology | Robert F.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Matei D.E.,Indiana University
Current Oncology Reports | Year: 2014

Endoglin is a homodimeric cell membrane glycoprotein receptor for transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic proteins. Endoglin is essential for angiogenesis, being densely expressed on proliferating endothelial cells and upregulated during hypoxia. Its expression is implicated in development of resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition. TRC105 is an antibody that binds endoglin and prevents endothelial cell activation. Targeting endoglin and the VEGF pathway concurrently improves treatment in vitro and appears to reverse resistance to bevacizumab in some refractory cancer patients. Randomized trials are under way to assess the clinical benefit of adding TRC105 therapy to bevacizumab therapy. Further trials are under way to assess the activity of TRC105 with small-molecule inhibitors of the VEGF pathway in renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and soft tissue sarcoma. Stratification of soft tissue sarcomas based on endoglin expression levels is proposed to identify patients most likely to benefit from TRC105 treatment. The development of a TRC105 antibody-drug conjugate is also described. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Marshall J.,Georgetown University | Shapiro G.I.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Uttenreuther-Fischer M.,Boehringer Ingelheim | Ould-Kaci M.,Boehringer Ingelheim | And 2 more authors.
Future Oncology | Year: 2013

Aims: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety and anti-tumor activity of afatinib combined with docetaxel in advanced cancer. Patients & methods: The MTD was determined from dose-limiting toxicities in the first cycle. Results: Thirty-one patients received 10, 20 and 30 mg oral afatinib, plus 60 and 75 mg/m2 intravenous docetaxel (six cohorts; 3-week cycles). The MTD of afatinib was 20 mg/day (days 2-21) with 75 mg/m2 docetaxel (day 1). Dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3/4 diarrhea (n = 3) and febrile neutropenia (n = 6). Most frequently occurring adverse events were diarrhea, neutropenia and rash. Disease stabilization occurred in 14 patients. Conclusion: Afatinib 20 mg/day plus docetaxel was suboptimal and the study could not yield Phase II dose recommendations. The combination resulted in a manageable safety profile. © 2013 John Marshall, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Mahmoud Ould-Kaci, Peter Stopfer & Michael S Gordon.

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