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Evans A.M.,Forest Guild | Perschel R.T.,Forest Guild | Kittler B.A.,Pinchot Institute for Conservation
Journal of Sustainable Forestry

Growing interest in bioenergy has motivated the development guidelines for the harvest and retention of forest biomass. In general, wood that would have been left on-site under traditional harvest conditions may be removed in a biomass harvest, which can mean a reduction of dead wood and other ecological effects. Recently developed biomass harvesting guidelines cover topics such as dead wood, wildlife and biodiversity, water quality and riparian zones, soil productivity, silviculture, and disturbance. This article reviews the commonalities of current guidelines and provides insights for future efforts to ensure sustainability of biomass harvests. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Bixler R.P.,Pinchot Institute for Conservation | Bixler R.P.,Colorado State University
Society and Natural Resources

Decentralization of governance is an emerging trend in many natural resource sectors in both developed and developing countries. Despite the normative agenda of community-based natural resource management for social and ecological outcomes, a shift to multilevel or polycentric theorizing is warranted. Polycentric governance recognizes the importance of cross-scale interactions, as well as the horizontal and vertical institutional linkages of authority, networks, and markets in which community institutions are embedded. Based on qualitative community forestry research in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada, this article explores the themes of livelihood and local economy, collaborative forest planning and participation, and environmental governance. Bottom-up empirical evidence suggests that viewing community forestry through a polycentric governance network is necessary for theorizing complex cross-scale dynamics. Incentivizing policies that encourage the development of polycentric systems for natural resource governance is important for maintaining local benefits, while increasing adaptive capacity to deal with complex social-ecological challenges. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ince P.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Skog K.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sample V.A.,Pinchot Institute for Conservation
Journal of Forest Economics

This paper describes an approach to modeling U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in domestic wood energy consumption under hypothetical future U.S. wood biomass energy policy scenarios. The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) was created to enhance the modeling of the U.S. forest sector within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM), providing a more detailed representation of U.S. regional timber supply and wood residue markets. Scenarios were analyzed with USFPM/GFPM ranging from a baseline 48% increase to a 173% increase in annual U.S. consumption of wood for energy from 2006 to 2030, while consumption of fuelwood in other countries was assumed to increase by around 65% in aggregate. Results indicate that expansion in wood energy consumption across the range of scenarios may have little impact on U.S. forest sector markets because most of the expansion can be supplied by logging residues that are presently not being utilized and also mill residues that will increase in supply with projected expansion in wood product output in the decades ahead. However, analysis also suggests that forest sector markets could be disrupted by expansion in wood energy if much higher levels of wood energy consumption occur, or if projected recovery in housing demand and wood product output does not occur, or if more restrictive constraints or higher costs are imposed on wood residue utilization. © 2011. Source

Anagnostakis S.L.,U.S. Department of Soil and Water | Pinchot C.C.,Pinchot Institute for Conservation
Acta Horticulturae

American chestnut trees were an important source of timber in Connecticut until chestnut blight disease reduced them to understory shrubs. Breeding begun in 1930 has now produced trees with enough resistance to initiate field trials in the forest. Biological control by hypovirulence viruses is being used in the plots in an effort to keep native trees alive. If native trees cross with the planted trees with resistance, future generations should have increased resistance to chestnut blight disease and the genetic diversity of the population will be increased. Source

Pinchot C.C.,Pinchot Institute for Conservation | Schlarbaum S.E.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Clark S.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Schweitzer C.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Saxton A.M.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Acta Horticulturae

Putatively blight-resistant advanced backcross chestnut seedlings will soon be available for outplanting on a regional scale. Few studies have examined the importance of silvicultural treatment or seedling quality to chestnut reintroduction in the U.S. This paper examines results from a silvicultural study of high-quality chestnut seedlings on the Cumberland Plateau of southeastern Kentucky. Three hundred American (Castanea dentata), three hundred advanced backcross (BC2F3) and one hundred fifty Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) seedlings were planted in three silvicultural treatments, ranging from low-light to high-light, on the Daniel Boone National Forest in Mar 2009. Seedlings were planted in a completely randomized design with a split-plot treatment arrangement, with silvicultural treatments as whole plots, and species in a randomized block design in the sub-plot. After three years, chestnut seedlings in the high-light treatment sites grew significantly more in height and root collar diameter, on average, compared to seedlings in the moderate- and low-light treatments. Survival did not differ among silvicultural treatments and averaged 64% over all sites. Low survival was due in part to the non-native root-rot disease organism, Phytophthora cinnamomi, which was confirmed at the site. This study suggests that while chestnut grows best in highlight environments, the species can become established under varying light-levels, which will give forest managers flexibility when choosing management strategies for chestnut reintroduction. Source

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