Lathom, United Kingdom
Lathom, United Kingdom

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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-28-2015 | Award Amount: 15.72M | Year: 2016

Bringing flexible organic electronics to pilot innovation scale (PI-SCALE) is a highly needed response to bridge the gap which exists today between promising laboratory scale results of highly efficient flexible OLED modules and mass manufacturing of high value-added products. The project will integrate existing European infrastructures into a European flexible OLED pilot line, which will operate in an open access mode and serve customers from along the value chain with individual product designs, validation of upscaling concepts, and system-level flexible OLED integration. The Consortium will connect the most advanced pilot line facilities with the best material providers and equipment manufacturers, creating a service that will offer substantial numbers of flexible OLEDs that can meet efficiency, durability and cost requirements of end users. Together with end-users for various markets, such as automotive and designer luminaires, PI-SCALE will demonstrate the capabilities of this pilot line doing process optimisation for product demonstrators to enable cost efficient production and facilitate an effective market introduction. In addition PI-SCALE will include a number of outreach activities to actively engage and educate interested users and suppliers for flexible OLEDs in interactive product concept development. PI-SCALE will not only support the market acceptance of flexible OLED products, but it will also ensure that prototype ideas from European companies will have the possibility of reaching a semi-industrial scale in a very short time.


Jha A.,University of Leeds | Richards B.D.O.,University of Leeds | Jose G.,University of Leeds | Fernandez T.T.,University of Leeds | And 3 more authors.
International Materials Reviews | Year: 2012

This review focuses on the engineering of the structural, thermal, optical and spectroscopic properties of tellurium oxide (TeO 2) glasses for their applications in fibre optic and waveguide devices. Unlike silica optical fibres, tellurium oxide glass fibres and light waveguides support propagation of light beyond y 2 mm, where silica fibres become opaque. Silica fibres also have limited solubility for rare earth oxides due to silica's structure, which is where tellurium oxide fibres and light waveguides can offer significant opportunities to engineer novel lasers and amplifiers for integrated optics. In this review, we compare the structural properties of TeO 2 based glasses, modified by incorporating alkali, alkaline earth, and other oxide compounds. Based on Raman, UV, visible and infrared spectroscopic data, the structural aspects of tellurite glasses are discussed. The effects of compositional modification on the thermal and viscous flow properties are also compared and related with the resistance against devitrification. The significance of glass to crystal phase transformation during cooling and heating is explained in the context of preform and fibre fabrication. The review also reports on the characterisation of OH 2 impurities in tellurite glasses. Recent developments in tellurite fibre lasers and femtosecond laser inscribed waveguide fabrication are discussed. © 2012 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining and ASM International.


Chalker P.R.,University of Liverpool | Marshall P.A.,University of Liverpool | Romani S.,University of Liverpool | Rosseinsky M.J.,University of Liverpool | And 5 more authors.
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings | Year: 2012

Thin transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of gallium-doped zinc oxide have been deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using diethyl zinc, triethyl gallium and water vapour as precursors. The gallium-doped zinc oxide films were deposited over the temperature range 100-350°C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the as-deposited films are polycrystalline in character. The electrical resistivity of the gallium-doped zinc oxide films was evaluated using four-point probe and contactless measurement methods as a function of film thickness. The lowest sheet resistance of 16 Ω/□ was measured from a film thickness of 400nm and a gallium content of 5 atomic percent. The electron Hall mobility of this film was 12.3 cm 2/Vs. The visible transmittance of the films was 78% with a haze of 0.2%. © 2011 Materials Research Society.


Kulczyk-Malecka J.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Kelly P.J.,Manchester Metropolitan University | West G.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Clarke G.C.B.,Pilkington United Kingdom Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2014

Low emissivity (low-E) coatings consisting of dielectric/silver/dielectric multi-layer stacks are applied to large-area architectural glazing to reduce heat losses from buildings. In this work TiO2/Ag/TiO2 stacks were deposited onto soda-lime glass by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings were annealed in the range 100-600 C to study silver diffusion through neighbouring layers. Depth-profiling analysis was performed on these samples using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and selected samples were also analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Fick's second diffusion law was used to find diffusion coefficient values and to investigate the temperature dependence of silver diffusion. To investigate film morphology and composition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were performed. The purpose of this study is the requirement for the understanding of the issue of silver diffusion during annealing treatments used in glass fabrication and the results obtained show that silver diffuses through the adjacent layers in a stack during heat treatment. However, in the temperature range investigated, the diffusion rates did not follow an Arrhenius dependence. At higher temperatures and longer annealing times sodium also diffuses from the glass into the coating, replacing the silver between the titania layers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 649.49K | Year: 2011

Project SCALLOPS (SCALable LOw-cost Organic Photovoltaics) aims to develop an organic photovoltaic device compatible with large-scale manufacturing processes. Each of the major components of the device is being developed with cost, scalability and sustainability in mind. An indium-free transparent electrode is being developed that entails modifying commercially available tin oxide based transparent conducting oxide substrates. Routes to the large-scale tin-free synthesis of the photoconductive polymers are being developed and the scalable processing of the polymers is being investigated. These components are then combined to assess their performance in devices. In addition to the component development more fundamental work is being undertaken to understand the photophysics of the devices and advanced characterisation techniques are being used to determine the properties of the components and devices.


Chalker P.R.,University of Liverpool | Marshall P.A.,University of Liverpool | King P.J.,University of Liverpool | Dawson K.,University of Liverpool | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Thin films of germanium-doped zinc oxide have been deposited by atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide matrix was grown from cyclic pulses of diethylzinc and water vapour over the temperature range of 100-350 °C substrate temperature. Tetramethoxygermanium(iv) was employed as a novel germanium-doping source, which could be incorporated up to 17 at%. At 2.1 at% germanium doping at a deposition temperature of 250 °C, the maximum carrier concentration of 2.14 × 10 20 cm -3 coincides with a carrier mobility of approximately 5 cm 2 V -1 s -1. No evidence for the formation of nanometre-scale germanium clustering or segregation was observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns or high-resolution transmission electron micrographs of these films. The near band edge photoluminescence shifts to higher energy with increasing germanium incorporation either by the Burstein-Moss mechanism or by alloy formation. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wang J.T.,East China University of Science and Technology | Shi X.L.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhong X.H.,East China University of Science and Technology | Wang J.N.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2015

Current development of fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films for the enhancement of light trapping is limited by the tradeoff between roughness and transmittance, since none of them can be improved without sacrificing the other. In this study, we report increases in roughness from 13 to 60 nm and haze from 1.2 to 10.3% for FTO films with a thickness of only 300 nm, by inclusion of different additives into the deposition system. Such significant improvements are achieved whilst maintaining a low resistivity and high transmittance. This results from the development of the desired pyramidal grain morphology associated with the strengthening of (110) preferred orientation and concurrent weakening of (200) and/or (301) preferred orientations. Thus, our study provides a general strategy for developing morphology-controlled FTO films to be compared with current commercial ones with a roughness of 38 nm and a thickness of 800 nm, for improving the light trapping and thus the efficiency of solar cells. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kulczyk-Malecka J.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Kelly P.J.,Manchester Metropolitan University | West G.,Manchester Metropolitan University | G.C.B. C.,Pilkington Technology Management Ltd. | Ridealgh J.A.,Pilkington Technology Management Ltd.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2014

In this work, silicon nitride coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering onto float glass substrates and post-deposition annealed at 650°C for 5min. The structures and compositions of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Samples were then over-coated with silver and subjected to a second annealing process to initiate the diffusion of silver through the adjacent coating layers. Additional silicon nitride coatings were then deposited on selected samples to produce Si3N4/Ag/Si3N4/glass stacks, which were annealed at temperatures in the range 100-600°C. Ag and Na diffusion coefficients were then calculated from compositional profiles obtained from time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis. The coatings deposited in this study were found to have stoichiometric Si3N4 compositions and were amorphous after annealing. The diffusion rate of silver through these coatings was found to depend on annealing temperature and coating density and roughness, which in turn can be related to the deposition conditions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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