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San Cristóbal de Segovia, Spain

Gomez-Laguna J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Hernandez M.,CICAP | Creus E.,PigChamp Pro Europa | Echeita A.,National Reference Laboratory of Salmonella LNRSSE | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal

The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 67 free-range pig herds in southern Spain. Microbiological assessment was performed on ileocolic lymph nodes collected at slaughter according to ISO 6579:2002 procedures. Overall, 33% of herds were infected and the prevalence of infection was 5.3%. Salmonella spp. serovars most frequently isolated were Anatum and Typhimurium, although uncommon serovars such as Hessarek and Mikawasima were also detected. Isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to streptomycin (46%), tetracycline (30%), sulphonamides (25%) and ampicillin (23%) by the break-point method. Multi-drug resistance, defined as resistance to ≥4 antimicrobials, was 36%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rey A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Amazan D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cordero G.,PigChamp Pro Europa | Olivares A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lopez-Bote C.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research

This study evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation source, and the dose given to sows or piglets, on the fatty acid profile of colostrum, milk, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, and the oxidative status of piglets at 39 days of age. Sows (n = 10) were given 150 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/d in feed, or 75 or 50 mg micellized-d-α-tocopherol/d in water from Day 103 of pregnancy. Weaning piglets from each group of sows (n = 7) received 3.33 mg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate/d in feed, or 1.7 mg micellized-d-α-tocopherol/d or 1.1 mg micellized-d-α-tocopherol/d in water for 14 days. Colostrum from sows supplemented with micellized-d-α-tocopherol had a lower proportion of C20:0 (P = 0.02), C18:4 n-3 (P = 0.03) and a higher C18:1 n-9 to C18:0 ratio than those given dl-α-tocopheryl acetate. Supplementation with micellized-d-α-tocopherol decreased the C18:0 proportion (P = 0.04) and the C18:1 n-9 to C18:0 ratio (P = 0.03) in milk, whereas the C18:1 n-7 proportion increased (P = 0.03) compared to dl-α-tocopheryl acetate. Composition was affected by the d-α-tocopherol dose. A similar trend to that observed in milk was observed in fatty acid composition in piglet fat. Piglets supplemented with micellized-d-α-tocopherol at low doses did not have different ferric reducing antioxidant power in muscle tissues (P = 0.31) than when they were supplemented with dl-α-tocopheryl acetate. Piglets given 1.7 mg micellized-d-α-tocopherol/d had lower oxidized glutathione than those given 1.1 mg/d (P = 0.0055). In conclusion, oral supplementation of sows (75 mg/d) and piglets (1.7 mg/d) with micellized natural vitamin E modified the fatty acid profile of piglet tissues and improved their oxidative status. © 2014 Hans Huber Publishers, Hogrefe AG, Bern. Source

Rey A.I.,Complutense University of Madrid | Segura J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Olivares A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cerisuelo A.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science

This study evaluates the effect of vitamin E supplementation source (micellized natural vs. the synthetic form) and dosage (40, 80, or 120∈mg/kg) on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and muscle, antioxidant capacity, and breast meat quality in turkeys. Three hundred female turkeys were randomly selected at an average live weight 63.2 g ± 0.5 and distributed into 7 groups. One group (control) was fed a standard diet without vitamin E supplementation and the other 6 were given mixed diets supplemented with the natural (d-α-tocopherol) or synthetic (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate) form of vitamin E in 3 dosages (40, 80, or 120∈mg/kg). Following 11 wk feeding, results showed that performance parameters were not modified either by source or dosage of vitamin E supplementation to the turkeys. Plasma and muscle α-tocopherol at d 9 of refrigerated storage were higher when turkeys were supplemented with the natural form at higher doses. Losses in the concentration of α-tocopherol in meat between the beginning and the end of the 9 d refrigerated storage were greater in the groups supplemented with the synthetic form of vitamin E compared to those receiving the natural supplementation. The relationship between plasma α-tocopherol and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity followed a different trend depending on the vitamin E source. Intramuscular fat was not significantly affected by the vitamin E source supplementation; however the slope of the linear regression equation was lower for the natural form than for the synthetic form. Turkeys given the natural form had higher C18:1n-9 but lower C15:1, C17:1, C20:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in breast muscle. Meat samples from turkeys supplemented with natural vitamin E had higher deoxymyoglobin at d 3, 6, and 9 and lower metmyoglobin at d 9 of refrigerated storage than those receiving the synthetic form. Dietary supplementation with medium doses (80∈mg/kg) micellized d-α-tocopherol is an interesting feeding strategy for ensuring antioxidant status and improving meat quality. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Amazan D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cordero G.,PigChamp Pro Europa | Lopez-Bote C.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lauridsen C.,University of Aarhus | Rey A.I.,Complutense University of Madrid

This study evaluated the strategy of supplementing oral micellized natural vitamin E (d-α-tocopherol) to either piglets and/or sows on α-tocopherol concentrations in piglets serum and tissues after weaning. One first experiment tested the influence of the vitamin E supplementation source (natural form in water v. the synthetic form in feed) and dose administered to piglets and/or sows on serum α-tocopherol concentration, α-tocopherol stereoisomer accumulation, antioxidant capacity and immune response of weaned piglets. A second experiment studied the effect of sow source and dose vitamin E supplementation on some of these parameters in piglets. Oral supplementation to sows with natural vitamin E as a micellized form (d-α-tocopherol) at the lowest dose produced a similar concentration of α-tocopherol in serum at days 2, 14 and 28 postpartum to those supplemented with threefold higher dose of the synthetic form in feed. At day 39 of age, neither piglet supplementation source nor dose significantly affected α-tocopherol accumulation in the serum, muscle, subcutaneous fat or liver. Those piglets from sows supplemented with the micellized alcohol form had higher RRR-α-tocopherol stereoisomers (P<0.001) and lower (P<0.001) RRS- RSS- and RSR-α-tocopherol, at day 39 of age than those from sows supplemented with the synthetic form. A predominant importance of sow over piglet vitamin E supplementation was observed on stereoisomer distribution in piglets. Low doses of oral natural vitamin E supplementation to sows or piglets did not increase the oxidative stress of piglets when compared with the use of the synthetic form in feed. Immunoglobulin levels in piglet serum at day 39 were not affected by natural vitamin E supplementation at low doses in drinking water of piglets or sows when compared with the synthetic form in feed. IgA tended to be higher (P=0.145) at day 39 in piglets supplemented with natural vitamin E when compared with those supplemented with the synthetic form. Low doses of oral micellized natural vitamin E supplementation to sows is an interesting feeding strategy, when compared with the use of high doses of the synthetic form in feed, because it results in similar α-tocopherol concentrations, allows a predominant -R stereoisomer distribution in piglets and also maintains their oxidative status in vivo. © The Animal Consortium 2014. Source

Sanz F.,Fundacion CEAM | Montalvo G.,S.A. Madrid | Lopez A.L.,Fundacion CEAM | Pineiro C.,PigChamp Pro Europa | And 2 more authors.
EAAP Scientific Series

A large proportion of the NH3 emitted locally is deposited in the immediate neighbourhood of the source rather than transported over long distances. A realistic distribution of NH3 sources and sinks requires quantitative information on the spatial location of the emission sources, as well as emission estimates, suitable spatial resolutions and the acquisition of data in different climatic conditions. Very few of the studies carried out in southern Europe show the distribution of NH3 emissions around point sources. In general, ammonia gas deposits close to the emission source. Studies in the surroundings of a poultry farm in UK reported NH3 deposition fingerprints of less than 1 km. In Spain, the ammonia concentration field around a laying hen farm decreased to levels of 3-5 μg/m3 (background levels for the area) within distances of less than 600 m, whereas at the same distances around a broiler meat farm the concentration levels were double. The aim of this paper was to determine the NH3 concentrations in the surroundings of a dairy farm in Spain, since no measurements around this type of farm are available, and to combine these measurements with estimates of the ammonia fluxes from the same farm. The ammonia concentrations were determined by passive samplers placed 2 m above the ground at 60 sampling points. To estimate the fluxes from the farm buildings, continuous measurements with an Innova (mod. 1412-5) were performed at different points. The concentrations near the stable showed a maximum of 150 μg/m3 and decreased to 23 μg/m3 within 200 m; the wind direction determined the shape of the plume. The background concentrations were estimated to be 5 μg/m3. The estimated NH3 emissions from the stable were 10.5 kg of NH3/cow/yr, which are lower levels than the ones used for the Spanish inventory. In addition, CH4 emissions were also estimated (79 kg of NH3/cow/yr). Source

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