Pig Improvement Company

Hendersonville, TN, United States

Pig Improvement Company

Hendersonville, TN, United States
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Te Pas M.F.W.,Animal Breeding and Genomics Center | Kruijt L.,Animal Breeding and Genomics Center | Pierzchala M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Crump R.E.,Animal Breeding and Genomics Center | And 9 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013

Meat quality traits have low heritability and large environmental influences. To predict, improve and manage meat quality, proteomic biomarkers are superior to genetic markers. The objectives of this research were (1) to find associations between proteome profiles of longissimus muscle at slaughter and meat quality accuracies of prediction of traits ranged from 20 up to 80%. Differentially expressed proteins related to drip loss and ultimate pH were identified by NanoLC-FTMSMS. The proteins highlight biological mechanisms that may explain how these traits develop biologically and how they are related to each other. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Estany J.,University of Lleida | Alvarez-Rodriguez J.,University of Lleida | Manteca X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Tor M.,University of Lleida | Diestre A.,Pig Improvement Company
Animal Welfare | Year: 2012

The effect of pre-slaughter handling conditions and the RYR1 gene on blood cortisol, lactate and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels at exsanguination were assessed using 2,923 surveyed pigs from 106 deliveries to five Spanish abattoirs across two seasons. The relationship between blood parameters, carcase skin damage and pork quality traits was also assessed. The season influenced blood cortisol, lactate and CPK values. Females always showed higher concentrations of cortisol, lactate, and CPK than males. Pigs carrying the recessive allele of the RYR1 gene exhibited increased lactate and CPK concentrations but not cortisol. The cortisol concentration decreased in lean pigs that were slaughtered in winter after short lairage periods. The lactate concentration decreased with loading time and increased in summer with lairage time and carcase lean content. The CPK concentration increased with lairage time, carcase weight, and carcase lean content, and with the duration of winter transports. Each truck delivery only explained approximately 10% of the variance in blood parameters. Lairage time is the most influential pre-slaughter handling practice on the assessed welfare indicators. In addition, different optimal lairage times might be appropriate depending on season. Blood cortisol, lactate, and CPK concentrations increased concomitantly with skin damage score. Blood parameters were weakly correlated and they also showed low association with pork quality traits. © 2012 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.

Cabrera R.A.,Pig Improvement Company | Cabrera R.A.,North Carolina State University | Cabrera R.A.,The Hanor Company | Boyd R.D.,Pig Improvement Company | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

A total of 1,034 pigs produced by breeding PIC sows to 2 different PIC terminal sires were used to create 3 distinct weaning weight populations so that postweaning growth to 125 kg could be studied. The rearing strategies resulted in BW that ranged from 4.1 to 11.5 kg by 20 d of age. Sows and corresponding litters were allocated to 3 treatments: sow reared (SR; n = 367) for 20 d, sow reared for 14 d (14W; n = 330), and sow reared for 2 d (2W; n = 337). Sows were removed from 2W and 14W groups, but progeny remained in the crates and received milk replacer ad libitum (for 18 and 6 d, respectively) until the contemporary SR pigs were weaned at 20 d of age. The SR pigs (6.49 ± 0.15 kg) weighed 1.01 kg less than 14W pigs (7.5 ± 0.14 kg) and 2.26 kg less than 2W pigs (8.75 ± 0.14 kg; P < 0.05). The 14W pigs weighed 1.25 kg less than 2W pigs (P < 0.05). Nursery ADG for the 2W group (547 g/d) was 35 g/d less (P < 0.05) than 14W pigs. The 14W pigs (165 d) required 3 fewer (P < 0.05) days to reach 125 kg of BW compared with SR pigs. The SR and 14W pigs gained BW 24 and 20 g/d faster (P < 0.05) in the postnursery period when compared with 2W pigs. The SR and 2W pigs consumed 0.10 and 0.12 kg/d less (P < 0.05) during this period when compared with 14W pigs (2.32 kg/d). Gaimfeed of SR was improved (P < 0.05) when compared with the 14W and 2W pigs over 167 d of age (0.44 vs. 0.42 and 0.42, respectively). Lean percentage was 0.7% greater (P < 0.05) in carcasses from SR pigs (55.0%) compared with carcasses from 2W pigs (54.3%) when adjusted to a constant HCW. A study of the effect of weaning weight on days to 125 kg was limited to SR and 14W groups because maternal deprivation compromised the 2W group postweaning growth. Six weaning-weight groups were defined using a normal distribution: 4.6, 5.5, 6.4, 7.3, 8.2, and 9.5 kg. Pigs weighing 5.5 kg at 20 d of age were able to reach 125 kg 8 d sooner (168.8 d) than those weighing 4.6 kg (176.8 d). There was a linear relationship (P < 0.05) between weaning weight and ADG in the postnursery phase of growth. We conclude that 1) a weaning weight of less than 5.0 kg imposes the greatest marginal loss in production output for a 20-d weaning and 2) lactation length influences long-term growth, composition of growth, and viability of progeny. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Abell C.E.,Iowa State University | Stalder K.J.,Iowa State University | Hendricks H.B.,Utah Pork Producers Association | Fitzgerald R.F.,Iowa State University | Fitzgerald R.F.,Pig Improvement Company
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to develop a prediction equation for carcass knife-separable lean within and across USDA cull sow market weight classes (MWC) and to determine carcass and individual primal cut knife separable lean content from cull sows. There were significant percent lean and fat differences in the primal cuts across USDA MWC. The two lighter USDA MWC had a greater percent carcass lean and lower percent fat compared to the two heavier MWC. In general, hot carcass weight explained the majority of carcass lean variation. Additionally, backfat was a significant variation source when predicting cull sow carcass lean. The findings support using a single lean prediction equation across MWC to assist processors when making cull sow purchasing decisions and determine the mix of animals from various USDA MWC that will meet their needs when making pork products with defined lean:fat content. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Cerisuelo A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Cerisuelo A.,Research Center y Tecnologia Animal | Sala R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gasa J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of increasing feeding allowance during mid-pregnancy in sows. A tota-l 1of 103 PIC pregn-an1t sows (mixed parity) were allocated to two -tre1atments: control (C, n=49) were fed 2.5-3.0 kg d-1 (12.1 MJ ME kg-1) and extra-fed (E, n=54) received +2.0 kg d-1 of the same feed from day 45to 85of gestation over three consecutive cycles. Body weight, backfat thickness (BF) and loin depth were measured on days 45and 85of gestation, farrowing and weaning. Litter and sows performance were recorded during lactation and post-weaning. Overall culling rates were 61 and 67% for C and E groups, respectively. After three cycles, E sows showed a positive BF balance in contrast to C sows (E=+1.46 mm and C=-1.81 mm, P<0.05). In cycle 3, E sows presented greater piglet birth weights than C sows, being mainly evident in sows that were nulliparous at the onset of the experiment (P<0.05). Extra-fed sows showed a greater incidence of mastitis-metritis-agalactia syndrome than C sows (P=0.003). Thus, increasing feeding allowance during mid-pregnancy positively affected BF balance and birth weight in nulliparous sows, but impaired the sows' ability to produce milk in the long-term.

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