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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Mandelcorn-Monson R.,University of Toronto | Marrett L.,University of Toronto | Kricker A.,University of Sydney | Armstrong B.K.,University of Sydney | And 13 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: Sunlight exposure increases risk of melanoma. Sunlight also potentiates cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D, which can inhibit melanoma cell growth and promote apoptosis. Vitamin D effects are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We hypothesized that genetic variation in VDR affects the relationship of sun exposure to risk of a further melanoma in people who have already had one. Methods: We investigated the interaction between VDR polymorphisms and sun exposure in a population-based multinational study comparing 1138 patients with a multiple (second or subsequent) primary melanoma (cases) to 2151 patients with a first primary melanoma (controls); essentially a case-control study of melanoma in a population of melanoma survivors. Sun exposure was assessed using a questionnaire and interview, and was shown to be associated with multiple primary melanoma. VDR was genotyped at the FokI and BsmI loci and the main effects of variants at these loci and their interactions with sun exposure were analyzed. Results: Only the BsmI variant was associated with multiple primary melanoma (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.99-1.62 for the homozygous variant genotype). Joint effects analyses showed highest ORs in the high exposure, homozygous variant BsmI genotype category for each sun exposure variable. Stratified analyses showed somewhat higher ORs for the homozygous BsmI variant genotype in people with high sun exposure than with low sun exposure. P values for interaction, however, were high. Conclusion: These results suggest that risk of multiple primary melanoma is increased in people who have the BsmI variant of VDR. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Taylor N.J.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Busam K.J.,Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | From L.,Womens College Hospital | Groben P.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Variation in the melanocortin-1receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with pigmentary phenotypes and risk of malignant melanoma. Few studies have reported on MC1R variation with respect to tumor characteristics, especially clinically important prognostic features. We examined associations between MC1R variants and histopathological melanoma characteristics. Study participants were enrolled from nine geographic regions in Australia, Canada, Italy and the United States and were genotyped for MC1R variants classified as high-risk [R] (D84E, R142H, R151C, R160W, and D294H, all nonsense and insertion/deletion) or low-risk [r] (all other nonsynonymous) variants. Tissue was available for 2,160 white participants of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) Study with a first incident primary melanoma diagnosis, and underwent centralized pathologic review. No statistically significant associations were observed between MC1R variants and AJCC established prognostic tumor characteristics: Breslow thickness, presence of mitoses or presence of ulceration. However, MC1R was significantly associated with anatomic site of melanoma (p = 0.002) and a positive association was observed between carriage of more than one [R] variant and melanomas arising on the arms (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.40, 4.09). We also observed statistically significant differences between sun-sensitive and sun-resistant individuals with respect to associations between MC1R genotype and AJCC prognostic tumor characteristics. Our results suggest inherited variation in MC1R may play an influential role in anatomic site presentation of melanomas and may differ with respect to skin pigmentation phenotype. © 2015 Taylor et al. Source


Taylor N.J.,Moffitt Cancer Center | Reiner A.S.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Begg C.B.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Cust A.E.,University of Sydney | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) is a marker of melanoma risk in populations of European ancestry. However, MC1R effects on survival are much less studied. We investigated associations between variation at MC1R and survival in an international, population-based series of single primary melanoma patients enrolled into the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma study. MC1R genotype data was available for 2,200 participants with a first incident primary melanoma diagnosis. We estimated the association of MC1R genotypes with melanoma-specific survival (i.e., death caused by melanoma) and overall survival using COX proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for established prognostic factors for melanoma. We also conducted stratified analyses by Breslow thickness, tumor site, phenotypic index, and age. In addition, we evaluated haplotypes involving polymorphisms near the Agouti signaling protein gene (ASIP) locus for their impacts on survival. Melanoma-specific survival was inversely associated with carriage of MC1R variants in the absence of consensus alleles compared to carriage of at least one consensus allele (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.90). MC1R results for overall survival were consistent with no association. We did not observe any statistical evidence of heterogeneity of effect estimates in stratified analyses. We observed increased hazard of melanoma-specific death among carriers of the risk haplotype TG near the ASIP locus (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.91, 2.04) when compared to carriers of the most common GG haplotype. Similar results were noted for overall survival. Upon examining the ASIP TG/TG diplotype, we observed considerably increased hazard of melanoma-specific death (HR = 5.11; 95% CI: 1.88, 13.88) compared to carriers of the most common GG/GG diplotype. Our data suggest improved melanoma-specific survival among carriers of two inherited MC1R variants. What's new? MC1R has important pigmentary biological functions, and inherited variations in the gene are well-known markers of melanoma risk. But whether those variants are also associated with disease survival is unknown. Here, germline variation at MC1R was associated with improved melanoma-specific survival in carriers who lacked a consensus MC1R allele. By contrast, the ASIP TG/TG diplotype, which also is known to be associated with melanoma risk, was linked to a 5-fold increase in hazard of death from melanoma. The findings indicate a complex but influential role for pigmentary genetic loci in melanoma outcomes. © 2014 UICC. Source


Taylor N.J.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Thomas N.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Anton-Culver H.,University of California at Irvine | Armstrong B.K.,University of Sydney | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

Although nevus count is an established risk factor for melanoma, relationships between nevus number and patient and tumor characteristics have not been well studied and the influence of nevus count on melanoma-specific survival is equivocal. Using data from the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, a large population-based study of primary cutaneous melanoma, we evaluated associations between number of nevi and patient features, including sun-sensitivity summarized in a phenotypic index, and tumor characteristics. We also assessed the association of nevus count with melanoma-specific survival. Higher nevus counts were independently and positively associated with male gender and younger age at diagnosis, and they were inversely associated with lentigo maligna histology. We observed a borderline significant trend of poorer melanoma-specific survival with increasing quartile of nevus count, but little or no association between number of nevi and pigmentary phenotypic characteristics or prognostic tumor features. © 2016 UICC Source


Berwick M.,University of New Mexico | Macarthur J.,University of New Mexico | Orlow I.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Kanetsky P.,University of Pennsylvania | And 29 more authors.
Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research | Year: 2014

A rare germline variant in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene, E318K, has been reported as associated with melanoma. We confirmed its independent association with melanoma [odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1, 2.7, P = 0.03]; adjusted for age, sex, center, age × sex interaction, pigmentation characteristics, family history of melanoma, and nevus density). In stratified analyses, carriage of MITF E318K was associated with melanoma more strongly in people with dark hair than fair hair (P for interaction, 0.03) and in those with no moles than some or many moles (P for interaction, <0.01). There was no evidence of interaction between MC1R 'red hair variants' and MITF E318K. Moreover, risk of melanoma among carriers with 'low risk' phenotypes was as great or greater than among those with 'at risk' phenotypes with few exceptions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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