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Hendersonville, TN, United States

Duthie C.,Sustainable Livestock Systems Group | Simm G.,Sustainable Livestock Systems Group | Doeschl-Wilson A.,Sustainable Livestock Systems Group | Kalm E.,University of Kiel | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified for growth and feed intake in pigs, however, there are currently no reports of interactions between QTL (epistasis) for these traits at different stages of growth. A genomic scan for epistatic QTL was conducted on animals from a three generation full-sib population, created by crossing Pietrain sires with a crossbred dam line. All types of two-locus interactions were fitted in the model using Cockerham's decomposition, by regressing on a linear combination of the individual QTL origin probabilities. This study is the first to report epistatic QTL for growth, feed intake and chemical body composition in pigs. Eighteen significant epistatic QTL pairs were identified, seven affecting growth, six affecting feed intake or food conversion ratio, and five affecting chemical body composition. Most interacting QTL resided on different chromosomes; only two were located on the same chromosome. The identified QTL pairs explained substantial proportions of the phenotypic variance, from 5% to 10.3%. All types of digenic epistatic effects were identified with the additive-by-additive effect being the most prevalent. These findings suggest that epistasis is important in the genomic regulation of growth, feed intake and chemical body composition. Furthermore, interactions occur between different pairs of epistatic QTL for the same trait depending on the growth stage, increasing the complexity of genomic networks. This agrees with studies on gene expression levels which showed that those are time and tissue dependent. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Arkfeld E.K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mancini S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mancini S.,University of Pisa | Fields B.,PIC | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Production of pork for quality-driven export markets offers economic incentive. Pork processors use subjective firmness as a sorting tool for loins intended for high-quality export. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) durometer efficacy in muscle, 2) if firmness on one portion of the loin is indicative of other locations, 3) if 1 d firmness is related to export quality traits, and 4) if variation in firmness is explained by mechanistic measures. Subjective firmness scores (1 = extremely soft and 5 = extremely firm) were determined by a trained individual 1 d (initial time point) postmortem. Loins (North American Meat Processors number 414 Canadian back; N = 154) were wet aged for 28 d at 1.7°C. On d 28, a panel of 4 individuals assigned firmness scores on the ventral side of the loin at the area of the 10th rib, the anterior half, and the posterior half of the loin. Durometer readings were collected at the area of the 10th rib on the dorsal and ventral side of the loin. Spearman correlation coefficients were computed in SAS (version 9.3) to account for nonnormality of categorical data. Subjective firmness measurements at d 28 at the 10th rib and on the anterior portion of the loin were not correlated (P ≥ 0.21) with whole loin durometer readings on the dorsal or ventral portion of the loin or the average of the whole loin values. Subjective firmness (d 28) at the 10th rib accounted for 38.44 (r = 0.620) and 48.30% (r = 0.695) of the variation in firmness at the anterior portion of the loin and the posterior portion of the loin, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). One-day subjective firmness measurements were correlated with 28-d Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements (r = 0.174, P = 0.03) but were not significantly correlated with sensory characteristics (P ≥ 0.08). Purge tended to be correlated with 1 d firmness (r = 0.136, P = 0.10); however, drip and cooking loss, 24-h and 28-d pH, and soluble and insoluble collagen content were not correlated (P ≥ 0.34). Firmness measurements collected in the production facility (1 d) were negatively correlated with iodine value (IV; r =-0.199, P = 0.02), yet no 28-d subjective firmness measurements were correlated with IV (P ≥ 0.33). When loins not achieving export standards are removed from the population, 1 d firmness was not correlated to export quality or sensory characteristics (d 28). Differences in firmness were not explained by mechanistic measures. Inconsistencies among subjective and objective firmness measurements suggest that the durometer may not be an appropriate way to determine firmness. © 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Bashir R.,Lahore Medical and Dental College | Imtiaz S.,Lahore Medical and Dental College | Yasir M.,Medical Laboratory Technology | Raza H.,Lahore Medical and Dental College | Shah S.M.A.,PIC
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences | Year: 2010

Background with aims and objectives: In last two decades, a multitude of clinical studies have investigated the role of cystatin C as a marker of kidney function. Cystatin C belongs to family 2 of the super family of cysteine protease inhibitors. It is produced in all the nucleated cells of the human body and its production rate is constant. Cystatin C is present in all human body fluids. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) on serum cystatin C in healthy population. Study Design: Analytical cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Eighty five healthy subjects both males and female ages 18-60 years were included in this study group. These subjects were divided into three groups based on BMI as control, over weight and obese. Serum cystatin C was measured by ELISA. Results: The serum cystatin C level was significantly high in over weight and obese groups as compared to control group in both males and females. Conclusion: The present study suggests that BMI affects serum cystatin C level.


Beaulieu A.D.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Aalhus J.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Williams N.H.,PIC | Patience J.F.,Prairie Swine Center Inc. | Patience J.F.,Iowa State University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, birth weight, carcass quality, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P < 0.05), but had no effect on within litter variability or carcass quality (P > 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P < 0.05). Birth weight had limited effects on carcass quality, weight of primal cuts, objective quality, and overall palatability of the meat at the same slaughter weight (P > 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight had limited effects on carcass composition or final eating quality of the pork when slaughtered at the same BW and large litter size resulted in more pigs weaned and marketed compared with the smaller litters. We concluded that based on the conditions of this study, other than increased days to market, there is no reason based on pig performance or pork quality to slow down the goal of the pork industry to increase sow productivity as a means to increase efficiency. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.


Riaz R.,PIC | Mishra J.,PIC | Hussain S.,Institute of Cardiology | Sinha L.M.,King Edward Medical University
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences | Year: 2012

Objective: To compare the relative effects of adenosine versus intravenous verapamil in the emergency treatment of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and to determine which is the most appropriate for the management of SVT. Patients and method: We performed a prospective comparative study in 180 patients from January 11, 2010 to June 20, 2010. Comparison was made between 90 SVT patients receiving Adenosine and another 90 SVT Patients receiving Verapamil. In Adenosine group, initially 6 mg bolus was administered, and if it fails to cardiovert with in 2 minutes of the administration, a further 12 mg bolus was administered. If SVT persisted then the patient were shifted to Verapamil group. On the other hand in Verapamil group, patients were given intravenous verapamil 5 mg bolus over 2 minutes and another 5 mg repeated after 10 minutes of the initial dose if the SVT persisted. If verapamil fails to cardiovert then the patients were shifted to adenosine group. Heart rate and blood pressure was continuously monitored during drug infusion and for up to 30min post-conversion. Results: A total of 180 patients with spontaneous stable SVT were analyzed. Of these, In Adenosine group, 54 (60%) patients were cardioverted to sinus rhythm with 6 mg bolus and 17(18.89%) patients converted to sinus rhythm with an additional 12 mg bolus of adenosine. Total efficacy of adenosine was 78.9%. In Verapamil group, 74(82.22%) patients were converted to sinus rhythm with 5 mg dose and 8(8.89%) patients converted to sinus rhythm with an additional 5 mg dose of verapamil. Total efficacy of verapamil was 91.1%. Test of proportion was applied and it was found that there was statistically significant difference in efficacy of verapamil as compared to adenosine (p value 0.02). Conclusions: This study documents effectiveness of Verapamil over adenosine in converting stable spontaneous SVT to Sinus Rhythm. And thus, Verapamil is an alternative to adenosine in the emergency treatment of SVT. It is safe and affordable for healthcare systems where the availability of adenosine is limited.

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