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Hamel, Canada

Lemoine P.,University of Montreal | Roy-Lachapelle A.,University of Montreal | Prevost M.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | Tremblay P.,Phytronix Technologies | And 2 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2013

A novel approach for the analysis of the cyanobacterial toxin, anatoxin-a (ANA-a), in an environmentally relevant matrix, using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS) is presented. The ultra-fast analysis time (15 s/sample) provided by the LDTD-APCI interface is strengthened by its ability to remove interference from phenylalanine (PHE), an isobaric interference in ANA-a analysis by MS/MS. Thus the LDTD-APCI interface avoids the time consuming steps of derivatization, chromatographic separation or solid-phase extraction prior to analysis. Method development and instrumental parameter optimizations were focused toward signal enhancement of ANA-a, and signal removal of a PHE interference as high as 500 μg/L. External calibration in a complex matrix gave detection and quantification limit values of 1 and 3 μg/L respectively, as well as good linearity (R2 > 0.999) over nearly two orders of magnitude. Internal calibration with clomiphene (CLO) is possible and method performance was similar to that obtained by external calibration. This work demonstrated the utility of the LDTD-APCI source for ultra-fast detection and quantification of ANA-a in environmental aqueous matrices, and confirmed its ability to suppress the interference of PHE without sample preparation or chromatographic separation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mohapatra D.P.,University of Quebec | Brar S.K.,University of Quebec | Tyagi R.D.,University of Quebec | Picard P.,Phytronix Technologies | Surampalli R.Y.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Talanta | Year: 2012

In this study, the distribution of the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) in wastewater (WW) and aqueous and solid phases of wastewater sludge (WWS) was carried out. A rapid and reliable method enabling high-throughput sample analysis for quicker data generation, detection, and monitoring of CBZ in WW and WWS was developed and validated. The ultrafast method (15 s per sample) is based on the laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The optimization of instrumental parameters and method application for environmental analysis are presented. The performance of the novel method was evaluated by estimation of extraction recovery, linearity, precision and detection limit. The method detection limits was 12 ng L-1 in WW and 3.4 ng g -1 in WWS. The intra- and inter-day precisions were 8% and 11% in WW and 6% and 9% in WWS, respectively. Furthermore, three extraction methods, ultrasonic extraction (USE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with three different solvent condition such as methanol, acetone and acetonitrile:ethyle acetate (5:1, v/v) were compared on the basis of procedural blank and method recovery. Overall, ASE showed the best extraction efficiency with methanol as compared to USE and MAE. Furthermore, the quantification of CBZ in WW and WWS samples showed the presence of contaminant in all stages of the treatment plant. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Mohapatra D.P.,University of Quebec | Brar S.K.,University of Quebec | Tyagi R.D.,University of Quebec | Picard P.,Phytronix Technologies | Surampalli R.Y.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

A comparative study of ultrasonication (US), Fenton's oxidation (FO) and ferro-sonication (FS) (combination of ultrasonication and Fenton's oxidation) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) from wastewater (WW) is reported for the first time. CBZ is a worldwide used antiepileptic drug, found as a persistent emerging contaminant in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluents and other aquatic environments. The oxidation treatments of WW caused an effective removal of the drug. Among the various US, FO and FS pre-treatments carried out, higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and soluble organic carbon (SOC) increment (63 to 86% and 21 to 34%, respectively) was observed during FO pre-treatment process, resulting in higher removal of CBZ (84 to 100%) from WW. Furthermore, analysis of by-products formed during US, FO and FS pre-treatment in WW was carried out by using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). LDTD-APCI-MS/MS analysis indicated formation of two by-products, such as epoxycarbamazepine and hydroxycarbamazepine due to the reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with CBZ during the three types of pre-treatment processes. In addition, the estrogenic activity of US, FO and FS pre-treated sample with CBZ and its by-products was carried out by Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay method. Based upon the YES test results, none of the pre-treated samples showed estrogenic activity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Mohapatra D.P.,University of Quebec | Brar S.K.,University of Quebec | Tyagi R.D.,University of Quebec | Picard P.,Phytronix Technologies | Surampalli R.Y.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are considered as emerging environmental problem due to their continuous input and persistence to the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Among them, carbamazepine (CBZ) has been detected at the highest frequency, which ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of CBZ in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the toxicity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Furthermore, WWS has been subjected for re-use either in agricultural application or for the production of value-added products through the route of bioconversion. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds and in order to protect the ecosystem or end users, data concerning the concentration, fate, behavior as well as the perspective of simultaneous degradation of these compounds is urgently necessary. Many treatment technologies, including advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been developed in order to degrade CBZ in WW and WWS. AOPs are technologies based on the intermediacy of hydroxyl and other radicals to oxidize recalcitrant, toxic and non-biodegradable compounds to various by-products and eventually to inert end products. The purpose of this review is to provide information on persistent pharmaceutical compound, carbamazepine, its ecological effects and removal during various AOPs of WW and WWS. This review also reports the different analytical methods available for quantification of CBZ in different contaminated media including WW and WWS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Mohapatra D.P.,University of Quebec | Brar S.K.,University of Quebec | Tyagi R.D.,University of Quebec | Picard P.,Phytronix Technologies | Surampalli R.Y.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2012

Ozonation pre-treatment was investigated for the enhancement of sludge solids and organic matter solubilization and simultaneous degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor compound from wastewater sludge (WWS). The ultrafast method (15 s per sample) used for the analysis of BPA in WWS is based on Laser Diode Thermal Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization coupled to tandem Mass Spectrometry. The statistical methods used for optimization studies comprised the response surface method with fractional factorial designs and central composite designs. The ozonation pre-treatment process was carried out with four independent variables, namely WWS solids concentration (15-35 g l-1), pH (5-7), ozone dose (5-25 mg g -1 SS) and ozonation time (10-30 min). It was observed that among all the variables studied, ozone dose had more significantly (probability (p) < 0.001) affected the efficiency of the ozonation pre-treatment by increasing sludge solids (suspended solids (SS) and volatile solids) solubilization and organic matter (soluble chemical oxygen demand and soluble organic carbon) increment and BPA degradation from WWS. During the optimization process, it was found that higher BPA degradation (100%) could be obtained with 24 g l -1 SS, 6.23 pH with an ozone dose of 26.14 mg g-1 SS for 16.47 min ozonation time. The higher ozone dose used in this study was observed to be cost effective on the basis of solids and organic matter solubilization and degradation of BPA. © 2012 Taylor and Francis. Source

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