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Suleiman M.M.,Phytomedicine Programme | Suleiman M.M.,Ahmadu Bello University | McGaw L.J.,Phytomedicine Programme | Naidoo V.,Phytomedicine Programme | Eloff J.N.,Phytomedicine Programme
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Aspergillus fumigatus causes severe problems in poultry production systems. Seven South African tree species were selected from the database of the Phytomedicine Programme based on its antifungal activity against the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. The acetone leaf extracts of the selected species had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.16 mg/ml and lower in the preliminary screening. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts of the leaves were determined using a two-fold serial microdilution method against a range of commonly encountered animal pathogenic fungi (A. fumigatus, Candida albicans, C. neoformans, Microsporum canis and Sporothrix schenckii) and four nosocomial bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The plant species investigated were Combretum vendae (A.E. van Wyk) (Combretaceae), Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Khaya anthotheca (Welm.) C.DC (Meliaceae), Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), Loxostylis alata A. Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae) and Protorhus longifolia (Bernh.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae). All the extracts had activity against at least one of the test organisms over an incubation period of 24 or 48 h. The MIC values of the non-polar and intermediate polarity extracts of O. natalitia, K. anthotheca, C. vendae, C. harveyi, and P. longifolia had MICs as low as 0.08 mg/ml against at least one of the tested bacteria. Furthermore, the acetone extracts of L. alata, K. wilmsii, O. natalitia and C. vendae had antifungal activities with MIC values ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 mg/ml against at least one of the tested fungi. The average MIC values of the plant extracts against the different bacteria ranged from 0.17 to 2.11 mg/ml, while the range was 0.23-1.98 mg/ml for fungi. The Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and E. faecalis) were more susceptible to the plant extracts than the Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). E. faecalis was the most susceptible microbe and C. vendae extracts were the most active against nearly all the bacteria tested. The acetone extract of L. alata was the most active against fungal pathogens, with activity against at least 3 fungal organisms. L. alata was selected for further work to isolate compounds active against A. fumigatus and other fungal pathogens. © 2009 SAAB. Source


Suleiman M.M.,Phytomedicine Programme | Suleiman M.M.,Ahmadu Bello University | Bagla V.,Phytomedicine Programme | Naidoo V.,University of Pretoria | Eloff J.N.,Phytomedicine Programme
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2010

The antioxidant, antiplatelet, and cytoxoxic effects of seven South African plant extracts, namely, Combretum vendae A.E. van Wyk (Combretaceae), Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Khaya anthotheca (Welm.) C.DC (Meliaceae), Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), Loxostylis alata A. Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae), and Protorhus longifolia (Bernh. Ex C. Krauss) Engl. (Anacardiaceae), were evaluated using established in vitro assays. All the extracts showed comparably low toxicity except for the extract of C. harveyi that showed high hemagluttination assay titer value, which indicates toxicity. The extracts of P. longifolia, K. wilmsii, O. natalitia, L. alata, C. harveyi, and C. vendae exhibited antioxidant properties in the qualitative assay using DPPH. In the quantification of antioxidation using ABTS, only the extracts of P. longifolia, L. alata, and C. vendae showed antioxidant activity with respective TEAC values of 1.39, 1.94, and 2.08. Similarly, in the quantitative DPPH assay, L. alata (EC50, 3.58±0.23 μg/mL) and K. wilmsii (EC50, 3.57±0.41 μg/mL) did not differ significantly (p≤0.05) from the control. K. anthotheca showed a higher EC50 (176.40±26.56 μg/mL) value, and differed significantly (p≤0.05) from all the other extracts and control. In addition, the extracts of C. vendae and C. harveyi showed significant (p≤0.05) antiplatelet activity and did not differ from the control (aspirin) with EC50 of 0.06±0.01 μg/mL and 0.19±0.00 μ μg/mL, respectively. Lower EC50 values in the antioxidant and antiplatelet studies are indicative of superior activity of the plant extract against oxidation and platelet aggregation. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source

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