Phytomedicine Programme

South Africa

Phytomedicine Programme

South Africa
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Zorloni A.,Phytomedicine Programme | Penzhorn B.L.,University of Pretoria | Eloff J.N.,Phytomedicine Programme
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2010

Calpurnia aurea extracts are used in southern Ethiopia to protect stock against ticks. Acetone, hexane and water leaf extracts of C. aurea collected in southern Ethiopia were tested for repellent/attractant and acaricidal properties on unfed adult Rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks. In contrast to many other plant species evaluated, C. aurea extracts did not have repellent properties, but rather had a slight attractant capacity. With 20% and 10% acetone extracts, all ticks were either killed or their mobility severely compromised after 1 μl of extract was topically applied on the abdomen. At a 5% concentration, 85% of ticks were still affected. A 10% aqueous solution also had a marked effect. The results prove the efficacy of the traditional use of this extract and may lead to a product that can be used commercially to protect animals against tick infestation, under subsistence as well as industrialized conditions. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Suleiman M.M.,Phytomedicine Programme | Suleiman M.M.,Ahmadu Bello University | Bagla V.,Phytomedicine Programme | Naidoo V.,University of Pretoria | Eloff J.N.,Phytomedicine Programme
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2010

The antioxidant, antiplatelet, and cytoxoxic effects of seven South African plant extracts, namely, Combretum vendae A.E. van Wyk (Combretaceae), Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Khaya anthotheca (Welm.) C.DC (Meliaceae), Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), Loxostylis alata A. Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae), and Protorhus longifolia (Bernh. Ex C. Krauss) Engl. (Anacardiaceae), were evaluated using established in vitro assays. All the extracts showed comparably low toxicity except for the extract of C. harveyi that showed high hemagluttination assay titer value, which indicates toxicity. The extracts of P. longifolia, K. wilmsii, O. natalitia, L. alata, C. harveyi, and C. vendae exhibited antioxidant properties in the qualitative assay using DPPH. In the quantification of antioxidation using ABTS, only the extracts of P. longifolia, L. alata, and C. vendae showed antioxidant activity with respective TEAC values of 1.39, 1.94, and 2.08. Similarly, in the quantitative DPPH assay, L. alata (EC50, 3.58±0.23 μg/mL) and K. wilmsii (EC50, 3.57±0.41 μg/mL) did not differ significantly (p≤0.05) from the control. K. anthotheca showed a higher EC50 (176.40±26.56 μg/mL) value, and differed significantly (p≤0.05) from all the other extracts and control. In addition, the extracts of C. vendae and C. harveyi showed significant (p≤0.05) antiplatelet activity and did not differ from the control (aspirin) with EC50 of 0.06±0.01 μg/mL and 0.19±0.00 μ μg/mL, respectively. Lower EC50 values in the antioxidant and antiplatelet studies are indicative of superior activity of the plant extract against oxidation and platelet aggregation. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.


Suleiman M.M.,Phytomedicine Programme | Suleiman M.M.,Ahmadu Bello University | McGaw L.J.,Phytomedicine Programme | Naidoo V.,Phytomedicine Programme | Eloff J.N.,Phytomedicine Programme
South African Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Aspergillus fumigatus causes severe problems in poultry production systems. Seven South African tree species were selected from the database of the Phytomedicine Programme based on its antifungal activity against the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. The acetone leaf extracts of the selected species had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.16 mg/ml and lower in the preliminary screening. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of hexane, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts of the leaves were determined using a two-fold serial microdilution method against a range of commonly encountered animal pathogenic fungi (A. fumigatus, Candida albicans, C. neoformans, Microsporum canis and Sporothrix schenckii) and four nosocomial bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The plant species investigated were Combretum vendae (A.E. van Wyk) (Combretaceae), Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Khaya anthotheca (Welm.) C.DC (Meliaceae), Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), Loxostylis alata A. Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae) and Protorhus longifolia (Bernh.) Engl. (Anacardiaceae). All the extracts had activity against at least one of the test organisms over an incubation period of 24 or 48 h. The MIC values of the non-polar and intermediate polarity extracts of O. natalitia, K. anthotheca, C. vendae, C. harveyi, and P. longifolia had MICs as low as 0.08 mg/ml against at least one of the tested bacteria. Furthermore, the acetone extracts of L. alata, K. wilmsii, O. natalitia and C. vendae had antifungal activities with MIC values ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 mg/ml against at least one of the tested fungi. The average MIC values of the plant extracts against the different bacteria ranged from 0.17 to 2.11 mg/ml, while the range was 0.23-1.98 mg/ml for fungi. The Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and E. faecalis) were more susceptible to the plant extracts than the Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). E. faecalis was the most susceptible microbe and C. vendae extracts were the most active against nearly all the bacteria tested. The acetone extract of L. alata was the most active against fungal pathogens, with activity against at least 3 fungal organisms. L. alata was selected for further work to isolate compounds active against A. fumigatus and other fungal pathogens. © 2009 SAAB.

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