PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG.

Stuttgart, Germany

PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG.

Stuttgart, Germany
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Butterweck V.,University of Florida | Semlin L.,University of Florida | Feistel B.,Finzelberg GmbH and Co. KG | Pischel I.,PhytoLab. GmbH and Co. KG | And 2 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2011

Stems of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) are traditionally used in Mexico to treat diabetes mellitus. Less research data are available for combinations of stem and fruit preparations. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract prepared from the cladodes and a proprietary stem/fruit skin-blend (stem/fruit skin ratio 75/25) of OFI on blood glucose and plasma insulin in normal rats.A dose finding study with the traditional cladode OFI extract revealed that maximum effects on blood glucose and insulin were observed after oral administration in a dose range of 6-176 mg/kg. The proprietary OFI blend significantly lowered blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test to a similar extent (p < 0.05 vs control) as the traditional aqueous cladode extract when administered in a dose of 6 mg/kg. In contrast to the aqueous extract, the proprietary blend significantly increased basal plasma insulin levels (p < 0.01 vs control) indicating a direct action on pancreatic beta cells. The results suggest that both OFI extracts exert hypoglycemic activities in rats in doses as low as 6 mg/kg but that the effects of the proprietary stem/fruit blend were more pronounced in our model. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Benedek B.,PhytoLab. GmbH and Co. KG | Ziegler A.,PhytoLab. GmbH and Co. KG | Ottersbach P.,Merck Selbstmedikation GmbH
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2010

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root is traditionally used for the topical treatment of contusions, strains and sprains. Besides allantoin and rosmarinic acid, which are discussed as pharmacologically active principles, the drug contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) known for their hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The topical herbal medicinal products Kytta-Salbe® f and Kytta-Plasma® f contain a PA-free liquid extract from comfrey root as active substance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of genotoxic effects of this special extract in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). Briefly, comfrey root liquid extract was investigated for its ability to induce gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, TA 1535 and TA 1537 with and without metabolic activation using the mammalian microsomal fraction S9 mix. Reference mutagens were used to check the validity of the experiments. Comfrey root fluid extract showed no biologically relevant increases in revertant colony numbers of any of the five tester strains, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation. In conclusion, the comfrey root fluid extract contained in Kytta-Salbe® f and Kytta-Plasma® f was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Begrow F.,University of Munster | Engelbertz J.,University of Munster | Feistel B.,Finzelberg GmbH and Co. KG | Lehnfeld R.,Phytolab GmbH and Co. KG | And 2 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2010

Thyme is a herb with broncholytic und secretomotoric effects. Its activity on receptors as a possible mechanism of action was demonstrated. Major components are thymol and carvacrol which are claimed to be responsible for its effects and, therefore, used for standardization in the German pharmacopoeia (0.03% phenols calculated as thymol). Our aim was to investigate the impact of thymol by using thyme extracts with either normal or extremely low thymol concentrations (<0.005% or >0.038%). The antispasmodic effect on smooth muscles of the trachea and the ileum and the effect on ciliary activity (respiratory clearance) were investigated. In addition, pure thymol and carvacrol were investigated separately and in spiking experiments. Thymol and carvacrol had a concentration-dependent antispasmodic effect in the rat trachea either being stimulated by acetylcholine, K+ or Ba++. The same result was observed with respect to the increase of mucociliary transport in mice. Extracts with very low thymol contents are effective in all models used except acetylcholine-induced rat ileum contraction. When thyme extracts with normal thymol contents or with very low thymol contents were compared, the extract with normal thymol contents was more effective, both as a relaxant (rat ileum) and as an antispasmodic compound (rat trachea contraction induced by either acetylcholine, Ba++ or K+) and in ciliary transport experiments. Thyme extracts with very low thymol contents (practically free of volatile oil) were equally effective with respect to endothelin effects. When an extract with very low thymol contents is spiked with increasing concentrations of thymol, a concentration-dependent increase concerning the antispasmodic effect (Ba++-induced trachea contraction) is observed. In conclusion, the data show that in various models of antispasmodic effect (ileum and trachea) and by measuring ciliary activity, thymol (and carvacrol) is (are) active, although other not identified components of thyme extract appear to be very important as well, since extracts with very low thymol contents are active. On the basis of these results the standardization on thymol alone appears not to be justified. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

Godard M.P.,Western Illinois University | Ewing B.A.,Western Illinois University | Pischel I.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG | Ziegler A.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010

Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of OpunDia™ (Opuntia ficus-indica) in obese pre-diabetic men and women. Materials and methods: This double-blind placebo controlled study included participants (age range of 20-50 years) randomly assigned to one of the two groups and given a 16-week supply of either the 200. mg OpunDia™ (n= 15), or placebo (n= 14). The acute phase of the study consisted of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with a 400. mg bolus of OpunDia™ given 30. min before orally ingesting a 75. g glucose drink. Baseline and post 16-week concentrations of glucose, insulin, hsCRP, adiponectin, proinsulin, Hb1Ac, cholesterol, and a comprehensive metabolic panel were collected along with body composition measured via densitometry (BOD POD). A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine any significant interactions between group and time. Follow-up analysis was performed to determine differences among groups at each time point. Paired t-tests were performed on all variables to determine if any within group differences existed across time. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the blood glucose concentrations at the 60 (205.92 ± 36.90 and 188.84 ± 38.43. mg/dL, respectively), 90 (184.55 ± 33.67 and 169.74 ± 35.16. mg/dL, respectively) and 120. min (159.24 ± 17.85 and 148.89 ± 24.86. mg/dL, respectively) time points with the pre-OGTT compared to the OpunDia™ bolus trial. There were no between-group differences found with the OGTT time points, area under the curve, blood chemistry variables (insulin, hsCRP, adiponectin, proinsulin, Hb1Ac), diet analysis variables (carbohydrates, fat, protein and total kcals), body composition variables (fat mass, fat free mass, percent body fat and total body weight), or blood chemistry safety parameters (comprehensive metabolic panel) pre-to-post 16-week intervention. Conclusions: This study shows the acute blood glucose lowering effects and the long-term safety of the proprietary product OpunDia™, thus supporting the traditional use of Opuntia ficus-indica for blood glucose management. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Da-Costa-Rocha I.,University of London | Bonnlaender B.,Plantextrakt GmbH and Co. KG | Sievers H.,Phytolab GmbH and Co. KG | Pischel I.,University of London | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Van Proeyen K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Ramaekers M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Pischel I.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG | Hespel P.,Catholic University of Leuven
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT R), a 30-min cycling bout at ∼75% VO 2max, and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT EX). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT R. Blood samples were collected before (t 0) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT EX an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t 60. In OGTT R, OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC GLUC) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t 30 and t60 (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t 30 (p < .05). In OGTT EX, blood glucose at t 60 was ∼10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC GLUC (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC INS were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Sanzini E.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Badea M.,Transilvania University of Brasov | Santos A.D.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG | Restani P.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG | Sievers H.,University of Milan
Food and Function | Year: 2011

It is essential to guarantee the safety of unprocessed plants and food supplements if consumers' health is to be protected. Although botanicals and their preparations are regulated at EU level, at least in part, there is still considerable discretion at national level, and Member States may choose to classify a product either as a food supplement or as a drug. Accurate data concerning the finished products and the plant used as the starting point are of major importance if risks and safety are to be properly assessed, but in addition standardized criteria for herbal preparation must be laid down and respected by researchers and manufacturers. Physiologically active as well as potentially toxic constituents need to be identified, and suitable analytical methods for their measurement specified, particularly in view of the increasing incidence of economically motivated adulteration of herbal raw materials and extracts. It remains the duty of food operators to keep up with the scientific literature and to provide sufficient information to enable the adaptation of specifications, sampling schemes and analytical methods to a fast-changing environment. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Melzig M.F.,Institute For Pharmazie Der Freien University Berlin | Funke I.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG
Zeitschrift fur Phytotherapie | Year: 2010

Summary Type 2 diabetes: a rationale indication for artichoke? Antidiabetics of plant origin are commonly used. However, a proof of their efficacy or their mode of action is often missing. Based on the knowledge about polyphenolic inhibitors of alpha-amylase from plants we selected artichoke preparations for investigating the alpha-amylase inhibiting properties. Due to their ability to lower the postprandial blood glucose level in addition to its lipid-lowering effect, artichoke might be a useful adjuvant drug to influence the metabolic condition in case of metabolic syndrome.

Zollner T.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG | Schwarz M.,PhytoLab GmbH and Co. KG
Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy | Year: 2013

This review concerns the definitions and appropriate analytical characterisations of herbal reference standards within the framework of regulatory requirements. It describes currently applicable rules and regulations, as well as future issues relating to the European Pharmacopoeia and United States Pharmacopoeia. It provides an update on the use and availability of pharmacopoeial (EP and USP) herbal reference standards since our last review was published in 2009. The continuing challenges facing manufacturers, suppliers and analysts are discussed on the basis of exemplary reference substances for herbal products in medicinal and food products. The article also reviews the special aspects of Brazilian stipulations (Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, Anvisa) by comparison with European regulations.

Algieri F.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Nogales A.,University of Granada | Garrido-Mesa N.,University of Granada | Zorrilla P.,University of Granada | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Crohn's and Colitis | Year: 2014

Nowadays, there is an increasing interest for alternative options in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that combine efficacy and an adequate safety profile. Methods: The intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of Serpylli herba, the officinal drug in the European Pharmacopeia composed by the aerial parts of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum), were evaluated in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis, which are well characterized experimental models with some resemblance to human IBD. Results: S. herba extract exerted an intestinal anti-inflammatory effect in both experimental models of colitis, as evidenced both histologically, since it facilitated the tissue recovery of the damaged colon, and biochemically as showed by the improvement of the different inflammatory markers evaluated, including myeloperoxidase activity, glutathione content, and leukotriene B4 levels as well as the expression of the inducible proteins iNOS and COX-2. This beneficial effect was associated with the reduction in the expression of different cytokines, like TNFα, IL-1β, IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-17, the chemokine MCP-1, and the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, thus ameliorating the altered immune response associated with the colonic inflammation. Conclusion: S. herba extract displays an anti-inflammatory effect on different models of rodent colitis that could be attributed to its immunomodulatory properties. © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation.

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