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Buenos Aires, Argentina

Hotouras A.,Academic Surgical Unit | Ribas Y.,Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa | Zakeri S.,Whittington Hospital NHS Trust | Bhan C.,Whittington Hospital NHS Trust | And 3 more authors.
Colorectal Disease

Aim: There are no available guidelines to support surgical decision-making in recurrent rectal prolapse. This systematic review evaluated the results of abdominal or perineal surgery for recurrent rectal prolapse, with the aim of developing an evidence-based treatment algorithm. Method: PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched for all clinical studies involving patients who underwent surgery for recurrent rectal prolapse between 1950 and 2014. The primary outcome measure was the recurrence rate after abdominal or perineal surgery for recurrent rectal prolapse. Secondary outcomes included morbidity, mortality and quality of life data where available. Results: There were no randomized controlled studies comparing the success rates of abdominal or perineal surgery for recurrent rectal prolapse. Most studies were heterogeneous, of low quality (level IV) and involved small numbers of patients. The follow-up of 144 patients included in the studies undergoing perineal surgery ranged from 8.8 to 81 months, with recurrence rates varying from 0% to 50%. Morbidity ranged from 0% to 17% with no mortality reported. Limited data on quality of life following the Altemeier procedure were available. The follow-up for 158 patients included in the studies who underwent abdominal surgery ranged from 0 to 23 years, during which recurrence rates varied from 0% to 15%. Morbidity rates ranged from 0% to 32% with 4% mortality. No quality of life data were available for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Conclusion: This systematic review was unable to develop a treatment algorithm for recurrent rectal prolapse due to the variety of surgical techniques described and the low level of evidence within heterogeneous studies. Larger high-quality studies are necessary to guide practice in this difficult area. © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Dudding T.,Specialist Registrar and Honorary Senior Clinical Fellow | Vaizey C.,Physiology Unit
Colorectal Disease

Objective: In patients undergoing sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), a temporary percutaneous stimulation wire is often used to assess the clinical response to therapy prior to chronic stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of bacterial colonization of screening wires and risk of clinical infection in patients undergoing prolonged temporary SNS screening. Method: Data were collected prospectively on a consecutive series of patients undergoing temporary SNS for bowel dysfunction. Procedures were performed using a standardized percutaneous technique with a single shot of either co-amoxyclav 1.2 g or cefuroxime 1.5 g given intravenously on induction. Adherent polyurethane dressings were applied to secure the wire. At the end of the screening period the wire and dressings were removed, the skin entry site was cleaned using an alcohol wipe and the wire removed via an aseptic technique. The distal tip of the wire was then cut and sent for culture. Results: Thirteen wires were removed at a median of 21 (range 16-29) days following insertion. There were no signs of local or systemic infection. Seven of the thirteen wires (54%) were found to have deep bacterial colonization. The commonest organisms isolated were staphylococcus species. There was no correlation between the length of time the lead had been implanted and the incidence of bacterial colonization. Conclusion: Bacterial colonization of the temporary stimulation wire is common but appears to be associated with a low risk of clinical infection. A single peri-operative dose of antibiotics does not appear to prevent colonization. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Maeda Y.,Aarhus University Hospital | Maeda Y.,Physiology Unit | Norton C.,Physiology Unit | Norton C.,Kings College London | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery

Background: The aim was to identify patient-related and operative factors that might predict the outcome of percutaneous nerve evaluation. (PNE). Methods: Demographic data (age, sex, body mass index), primary cause of incontinence, number and type of incontinence episodes, results of endoanal ultrasonography and manometry, and operative factors from 244 patients who underwent PNE for faecal incontinence were reviewed. Each factor was assessed according to the outcome, and explored by univariable and multivariable analysis to identify predictors. Results: Some 191 patients (78.3 per cent) had a successful PNE. A low amplitude of sensory threshold during PNE (odds ratio (OR) 0.69 (95 per cent confidence interval 0.59 to 0.81); P < 0.001) and lead placement anterior to the sacral cortex (OR 9.06 (4.70 to 17.45); P < 0.001) were positive predictive factors for successful outcome of PNE. Neither a defect nor an abnormality of either the external (OR 0.88 (0.39 to 1.97); P = 0.749) or internal (OR 0.62 (0.27 to 1.42); P = 0.255) anal sphincter was a negative predictive factor. Demographic variables, number of incontinence episodes and the motor response threshold did not predict outcome. Conclusion: No preoperative predictor of PNE outcome could be identified. Predictors were limited to operative lead placement and sensory response during PNE. Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Source

Buchheit M.,Academy for Sports Excellence | Buchheit M.,Physiology Unit | Laursen P.B.,High Performance Sport New Zealand | Laursen P.B.,Auckland University of Technology
Sports Medicine

High-intensity interval training (HIT), in a variety of forms, is today one of the most effective means of improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, the physical performance of athletes. HIT involves repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. For team and racquet sport players, the inclusion of sprints and all-out efforts into HIT programmes has also been shown to be an effective practice. It is believed that an optimal stimulus to elicit both maximal cardiovascular and peripheral adaptations is one where athletes spend at least several minutes per session in their 'red zone,' which generally means reaching at least 90 % of their maximal oxygen uptake ( VO2max). While use of HIT is not the only approach to improve physiological parameters and performance, there has been a growth in interest by the sport science community for characterizing training protocols that allow athletes to maintain long periods of time above 90 % of VO2max (T@VO2max). In addition to T@VO2max, other physiological variables should also be considered to fully characterize the training stimulus when programming HIT, including cardiovascular work, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and acute neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain. Prescription for HIT consists of the manipulation of up to nine variables, which include the work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, as well as the between-series recovery duration and intensity. The manipulation of any of these variables can affect the acute physiological responses to HIT. This article is Part I of a subsequent II-part review and will discuss the different aspects of HIT programming, from work/relief interval manipulation to the selection of exercise mode, using different examples of training cycles from different sports, with continued reference to T@VO2max and cardiovascular responses. Additional programming and periodization considerations will also be discussed with respect to other variables such as anaerobic glycolytic system contribution (as inferred from blood lactate accumulation), neuromuscular load and musculoskeletal strain (Part II). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013. Source

Hollingshead J.R.F.,Physiology Unit | Dudding T.C.,Physiology Unit | Vaizey C.J.,Physiology Unit
Colorectal Disease

Aim: Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is considered a first-line surgical treatment option for faecal incontinence. There is little information on long-term results. The results of SNS for faecal incontinence performed at a single centre over a 10-year period are reported. Method: A cohort analysis of consecutive patients treated with SNS for faecal incontinence over a 10-year period was carried out. Data were collected prospectively using bowel habit diaries and St Mark's and Cleveland Clinic incontinence scores. Treatment success was defined as a >50% reduction in episodes of faecal incontinence compared with baseline. Results: Temporary SNS was performed in 118 patients, and 91 (77%) were considered suitable for chronic stimulation. The median period of follow up was 22 (1-138) months. Seventy patients were followed for 1year with success in 63 (90%). Of 18 patients followed for 5years, 15 (83%) reported continued success, 11 (61%) maintained full efficacy, 4 (22%) reported some loss, and 3 (17%) reported complete loss. Three patients with a 10-year follow up had no loss in efficacy. Overall, complete loss of efficacy was observed in 14 (16%) patients at a median of 11.5months following implantation. A further 5 (6%) patients showed deterioration with time. In 9 (47%), no reason for the deterioration in symptoms could be identified. Conclusions: SNS can be effective for up to 10 years. Some patients experience deterioration in symptoms over time. The reasons for this are often not evident. © 2011 The Authors Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

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