Braunschweig, Germany

The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt is based in Braunschweig and Berlin. It is the national institute for natural and engineering science and the highest technical authority for metrology and physical safety engineering in Germany.The PTB is entrusted by the Time Act to realise and disseminate legal time to the public. The most popular means is the transmission of standard frequency and time signals by the longwave time signal DCF77. It is responsible for four German caesium atomic clocks, CS1, CS2, CSF1 and CSF2 . These atomic clocks have an important role in maintaining accurate worldwide time of day as they provide the German UTC legal time standard which - combined with other official atomic time standards - is used by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures to create a single, official Coordinated Universal Time . In addition, the PTB operates the "stratum 1" ptbtime1.ptb.de, ptbtime2.ptb.de and ptbtime3.ptb.de public Network Time Protocol time servers for the distribution of time on the internet.They are also responsible for the certification of voting machines for the German federal and European elections, and electroshock weapons. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Diehl Metering Gmbh and Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt | Date: 2016-12-05

A method for determining the volumetric flow rate of a fluid medium through a measuring section in a substantially gas-type-independent manner, includes heating the medium in a pulsed manner by using a heating element, detecting a first point in time at which a temperature maximum occurs at a first temperature sensor, the first temperature sensor being disposed adjacently upstream or downstream of the heating element, detecting a second point in time at which a temperature maximum occurs at a second temperature sensor, the second temperature sensor being disposed downstream of the heating element, the second temperature sensor being further away from the heating element than the first temperature sensor, and ascertaining a time difference between the first and second points in time. The volumetric flow rate is determined in dependence on the time difference. A device for carrying out the method is also provided.


Patent
Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt and Diehl Metering GmbH | Date: 2017-04-12

Disclosed is a method for determining the volumetric flow rate of a fluid medium through a measuring section in a substantially gas-type independent manner, said method comprising the following steps: pulsed heating of the medium by means of a heating element; recording a first time at which a maximum temperature occurs at a first temperature sensor lying upstream or downstream from, and adjacent to, the heating element; recording a second time at which a maximum temperature occurs at a second temperature sensor lying downstream of the heating element, wherein the second temperature sensor is located further away from the heat source than the first temperature sensor; calculating a time difference between the first and the second time; and determining the volumetric flow rate on the basis of the time difference.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CPCSA | Phase: INFRA-2013-1.2.1 | Award Amount: 85.21M | Year: 2013

This proposal details activities that will ensure the continued enhancement and ongoing operation of the leading-edge GANT network, supporting a range of network and added-value services, targeted at users across the GANT service area.\nIn the area of multi-domain network service operation, GN3plus plans to deliver fast, efficient provisioning of advanced services, develop operational support across management domains, and improve security to ensure service integrity and protect network resources. These initiatives will be complemented by the development of application services in a federated environment such as mobile and wireless roaming supported by safe and secure Authentication and Authorisation Infrastructure.\nNetworking Activities will provide management and support for all GN3plus activities through communication, promotion, international liaison and business development. Emphasis will be placed on supporting and encouraging service take-up among users by working closely with NRENs. GANT will increase digital inclusion through closer collaboration between NRENs, exchange of staff and specialist expertise, as well as by seeking synergies between public administrations and the GN3plus partners using their vast, shared knowledge base.\nJoint Research Activities will be targeted at providing critical analyses of future network and application technologies, with a view to future deployment of emerging technologies within and outside the GANT community.\nThe governance model aims to increase effectiveness and user influence. The GN3plus Partners Assembly will deal with overall policy and an Executive Board will oversee its implementation. An International User Advisory Committee and External Advisory Committee will ensure users views and senior industry and service provider expertise are channelled directly to the Assembly. Specialised Advisory Boards will ensure highly efficient decision making, and that the voice of the stakeholder community is heard.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 4.00M | Year: 2016

By combining accurate magnetic measurements of neural activity with near-simultaneous high-definition measurements of cerebral structure provided by novel methods in ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging (ULF MRI ) we will be able to image the dynamics of human brain function at unprecedented resolution and reliability. BREAKBEN will achieve a revolution in neuroimaging; we aim at breaking the barrier for measurement of neuronal currents by ULF MRI (neural current imaging; NCI) as well as breaking the nonuniqueness barrier for magnetoencephalography (MEG) by combining it with ULF MRI and accurately presented a priori information. A key aspect in utilizing the a priori information is injected current density imaging (CDI), which will inform us about the individual conductivity structure of the head. Using novel verification and validation approaches, we will demonstrate the unique advantages of these multimodal techniques. These breakthroughs will result in completely different workflows in brain imaging, also suitable for clinical use. We believe that we are at the edge of a qualitative technology jump with ULF MRI, its applications and combinations. This will lead to a wealth of new applications and revolutionize the way we do magnetism-based measurements of the nervous system. Europe has the unique chance to lead this revolution.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRAINNOV-02-2016 | Award Amount: 1.99M | Year: 2017

A scientific and technological paradigm change is taking place, concerning the way that very high performance time and frequency reference signals are distributed, moving from radio signal broadcasting to signal transport over optical fibre networks. The latter technology demonstrates performance improvements by orders of magnitude, over distances up to continental scale. Research infrastructures are developing several related technologies, adapted to specific projects and applications. The present project aims to prepare the transfer of this new generation of technology to industry and to strengthen the coordination between research infrastructures and the research and education telecommunication networks, in order to prepare the deployment of this technology to create a sustainable, pan-European network, providing high-performance clock services to European research infrastructures. Further this core network will be designed to be compatible with a global European vision of time and frequency distribution over telecommunication networks, enabling it to provide support to a multitude of lower-performance time services, responding to the rapidly growing needs created by developments such as cloud computing, Internet of Things and Industry 4.0. The project aims at partnership building and innovation for high performance time and frequency (clock) services over optical fibre networks and to prepare the implementation of such a European backbone network.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.84M | Year: 2016

Our vision is to develop a suite of standardised non-invasive devices that will provide essential information about brain health in neurocritical care and neuromonitoring, with a particular emphasis on 1. traumatic brain injury: the silent epidemic of the third millennium and 2. hypoxia in newborn children. Survivors present permanent neurological conditions that have a profound impact on the quality of life of individuals and their families, and hence a large socio-economic impact. The key factors influencing these conditions and their treatment are the avoidance of brain hypoxia and metabolic disturbances and this is driving the transfer of new neuromonitoring systems to the bedside where they are being shown to have a transformative effect on patient care. BitMap will develop non-invasive photonics-based monitoring techniques and data analysis methods to provide biomarkers that could guide patient management. A cohort of multi-disciplinary Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), embedded in leading laboratories across Europe, will work together on an programme designed to address the key technological and clinical challenges in neurocritical care. The ESRs will benefit from the diverse range of expertise in advanced photonics and clinical application which will substantially enhance their research competitiveness and employability, and will together form a critical mass of skilled people working together towards new technologies for improved neuroclinical care. The challenges involved are fundamentally multi-disciplinary and therefore ESRs trained in a multi-disciplinary environment are essential if progress and clinical impact is to be made. There is currently no graduate programme producing researchers with these attributes, but there is a significant market for such PhDs in the rapidly developing area of biomedical optics and in general in medical imaging technology development. The BitMap project therefore addresses both a clinical and economic need.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ECSEL-IA | Phase: ECSEL-02-2014 | Award Amount: 181.08M | Year: 2015

The SeNaTe project is the next in a chain of thematically connected ENIAC JU KET pilot line projects which are associated with 450mm/300mm development for the 12nm and 10nm technology nodes. The main objective is the demonstration of the 7nm IC technology integration in line with the industry needs and the ITRS roadmap on real devices in the Advanced Patterning Center at imec using innovative device architecture and comprising demonstration of a lithographic platform for EUV and immersion technology, advanced process and holistic metrology platforms, new materials and mask infrastructure. A lithography scanner will be developed based on EUV technology to achieve the 7nm module patterning specification. Metrology platforms need to be qualified for N7s 1D, 2D and 3D geometries with the appropriate precision and accuracy. For the 7nm technology modules a large number of new materials will need to be introduced. The introduction of these new materials brings challenges for all involved processes and the related equipment set. Next to new deposition processes also the interaction of the involved materials with subsequent etch, clean and planarization steps will be studied. Major European stakeholders in EUV mask development will collaboratively work together on a number of key remaining EUV mask issues. The first two years of the project will be dedicated to find the best options for patterning, device performance, and integration. In the last year a full N7 integration with electrical measurements will be performed to enable the validation of the 7nm process options for a High Volume Manufacturing. The SeNaTe project relates to the ECSEL work program topic Process technologies More Moore. It addresses and targets as set out in the MASP at the discovery of new Semiconductor Process, Equipment and Materials solutions for advanced CMOS processes that enable the nano-structuring of electronic devices with 7nm resolution in high-volume manufacturing and fast prototyping.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-1-2014 | Award Amount: 3.97M | Year: 2015

Atomic clocks are the backbone of our modern communication and navigation technology, e.g. through the global positioning system (GPS). Improving these clocks will open up exciting new applications in geodesy, fleet tracking, autonomous vehicles, augmented reality and shed light on some of the most fundamental questions in research. Todays best atomic clocks lose only 1 second in 30 billion years, making them the most precise measurement devices ever built. However, such clocks are extremely delicate and susceptible to external perturbations; they can only be operated in specialized laboratories. We propose to develop a novel type of clock, based on a unique nuclear transition in Thorium-229. This nuclear clock will be fundamentally different from existing atomic clocks, which are based on transitions in the electron shell. It will be largely inert to perturbations, simpler by design, and holds the potential to outperform existing atomic clocks in terms of precision. So far, progress towards an application of the Thorium nuclear transition has been hampered by the extreme technological challenges related to the scarcity of 229Th, insufficient detector resolution, and exotic lasers frequencies. Suitable technology is only becoming available just now. Furthermore, this research demands supreme expertise in a variety of fields, encompassing nuclear and atomic physics, quantum optics, metrology, as well as detector- and laser technology. Our interdisciplinary consortium is assembled to precisely match these requirements, joining for the first time Europes leading research groups in the respective fields. The work will focus on two objectives; (i) finding clear evidence of the transition and measuring its frequency, and (ii) developing all key components required for operation of a nuclear clock. We are certain that next-generation satellite-based navigation technology and other precision timing applications will greatly benefit from more precise and robust clocks.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2015 | Award Amount: 945.00K | Year: 2016

Q-SENSE will promote international and inter-sector collaboration for the advancement of science and the development of innovation in the area of cold atom quantum sensors. In particular it fosters a shared culture of research and innovation that turns the Nobel-prize winning ideas of cold atom research and precision measurement (Nobel prizes 1997 and 2005) into innovative products. In particular, we bring together a synergetic network of the world leaders in optical clocks and atom interferometers with technology translators and end user applicants to promote space and terrestrial applications of optical clocks and cold atom gravity sensors with an additional eye on implications on policies via the JRC. Our research and innovation programme will deliver knowledge exchange around a technology demonstrator for a space optical clock, development plans for atom interferometer satellite missions, an open source toolbox for simulations of atom interferometer performance in real-world applications and outreach to over 70 companies and the public raising awareness of the potential of optical clocks and cold atom gravimeters for economic and societal benefits, such as in global water monitoring, humanitarian de-mining, satellite navigation and broadband communication. Q-SENSE will enhance the skills of research- and innovation-related human resources in our partner organisations to work seamlessly across sectors and provide new career perspectives in the emerging area of commercial quantum technologies.


Grosche G.,Physikalisch - Technische Bundesanstalt
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

Single-mode optical fiber is a highly efficient connecting medium used not only for optical telecommunications but also for the dissemination of ultrastable frequencies or timing signals. Ma et al. [Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994)] described a measurement and control system to deliver the same optical frequency at two places, namely the two ends of a fiber, by eliminating the "fiber-induced phase-noise modulation, which corrupts high-precision frequency-based applications." I present a simple detection and control scheme to deliver the same optical frequency at many places anywhere along a transmission path, or in its vicinity, with a relative instability of 1 part in 1019. The same idea applies to radio frequency and timing signals. This considerably simplifies future efforts to make precise timing or frequency signals available to many users, as required in some large-scale science experiments. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

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