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Walter B.,Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center | Winkler R.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Graber F.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Finsterle W.,Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center | And 3 more authors.
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2017

The World Radiometric Reference (WRR) is an artefact based reference for Direct Solar Irradiance (DSI) measurements. The WRR is realized by a group of electrical substitution radiometers, the World Standard Group (WSG). In recent years, a relative difference of about -0.3% between the International System of Units (SI) scale and the WRR scale was observed with the SI scale being lower. The Cryogenic Solar Absolute Radiometer (CSAR) aims for i) providing direct traceability of DSI measurements to the SI system, ii) reducing the overall uncertainty of DSI measurements towards 0.01% and for iii) replacing the WSG in future. The latest SI-WRR intercomparisons performed with CSAR revealed a relative difference of -0.29% ± 0.064% (k = 1) between the SI and the WRR scale, a result that agrees well with previous findings. The uncertainty of corrections for the window transmittance results currently in the largest contribution to the total uncertainty for the CSAR measurements. The formal transition from the WRR to the SI-scale for DSI measurements is currently being discussed in the WMO/CIMO Task Team on Radiation References. © 2017 Author(s).


Anet J.G.,ETH Zurich | Muthers S.,University of Bern | Rozanov E.,ETH Zurich | Rozanov E.,Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center | And 10 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

The response of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics to volcanic eruptions and to a decrease in solar activity during the Dalton Minimum is investigated with the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry general circulation model SOCOL-MPIOM (modeling tools for studies of SOlar Climate Ozone Links-Max Planck Institute Ocean Model) covering the time period 1780 to 1840 AD. We carried out several sensitivity ensemble experiments to separate the effects of (i) reduced solar ultra-violet (UV) irradiance, (ii) reduced solar visible and near infrared irradiance, (iii) enhanced galactic cosmic ray intensity as well as less intensive solar energetic proton events and auroral electron precipitation, and (iv) volcanic aerosols. The introduced changes of UV irradiance and volcanic aerosols significantly influence stratospheric dynamics in the early 19th century, whereas changes in the visible part of the spectrum and energetic particles have smaller effects. A reduction of UV irradiance by 15%, which represents the presently discussed highest estimate of UV irradiance change caused by solar activity changes, causes global ozone decrease below the stratopause reaching as much as 8% in the midlatitudes at 5 hPa and a significant stratospheric cooling of up to 2° C in the mid-stratosphere and to 6° C in the lower mesosphere. Changes in energetic particle precipitation lead only to minor changes in the yearly averaged temperature fields in the stratosphere. Volcanic aerosols heat the tropical lower stratosphere, allowing more water vapour to enter the tropical stratosphere, which, via HOx reactions, decreases upper stratospheric and mesospheric ozone by roughly 4%. Conversely, heterogeneous chemistry on aerosols reduces stratospheric NO x, leading to a 12% ozone increase in the tropics, whereas a decrease in ozone of up to 5% is found over Antarctica in boreal winter. The linear superposition of the different contributions is not equivalent to the response obtained in a simulation when all forcing factors are applied during the Dalton Minimum (DM)-this effect is especially well visible for NOx/NO y. Thus, this study also shows the non-linear behaviour of the coupled chemistry-climate system. Finally, we conclude that especially UV and volcanic eruptions dominate the changes in the ozone, temperature and dynamics while the NOxfield is dominated by the energetic particle precipitation. Visible radiation changes have only very minor effects on both stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.


Anet J.G.,ETH Zurich | Rozanov E.V.,ETH Zurich | Rozanov E.V.,Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center | Muthers S.,University of Bern | And 8 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

We investigate the effects of a recently proposed 21st century Dalton minimum like decline of solar activity on the evolution of Earth's climate and ozone layer. Three sets of two member ensemble simulations, radiatively forced by a midlevel emission scenario (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change RCP4.5), are performed with the atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model AOCCM SOCOL3-MPIOM, one with constant solar activity, the other two with reduced solar activity and different strength of the solar irradiance forcing. A future grand solar minimum will reduce the global mean surface warming of 2 K between 1986-2005 and 2081-2100 by 0.2 to 0.3 K. Furthermore, the decrease in solar UV radiation leads to a significant delay of stratospheric ozone recovery by 10 years and longer. Therefore, the effects of a solar activity minimum, should it occur, may interfere with international efforts for the protection of global climate and the ozone layer. Key Points A future grand solar minimum will modify the global ozone distribution A future grand solar minimum will have an impact on the rate of global warming Strength and duration of a future grand solar minimum are highly uncertain. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Kretzschmar M.,Royal Observatory of Belgium | Kretzschmar M.,University of Orléans | Dammasch I.E.,Royal Observatory of Belgium | Dominique M.,Royal Observatory of Belgium | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate | Year: 2012

The Large-Yield Radiometer (LYRA) is a radiometer that has monitored the solar irradiance at high cadence and in four pass bands since January 2010. Both the instrument and its spacecraft, PROBA2 (Project for OnBoard Autonomy), have several innovative features for space instrumentation, which makes the data reduction necessary to retrieve the long-term variations of solar irradiance more complex than for a fully optimized solar physics mission. In this paper, we describe how we compute the long-term time series of the two extreme ultraviolet irradiance channels of LYRA and compare the results with those of SDO/EVE. We find that the solar EUV irradiance has increased by a factor of 2 since the last solar minimum (between solar cycles 23 and 24), which agrees reasonably well with the EVE observations. © Owned by the authors, Published by EDP Sciences 2012.


Muthers S.,University of Bern | Anet J.G.,ETH Zurich | Raible C.C.,University of Bern | Bronnimann S.,University of Bern | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2014

An important key for the understanding of the dynamic response to large tropical volcanic eruptions is the warming of the tropical lower stratosphere and the concomitant intensification of the polar vortices. Although this mechanism is reproduced by most general circulation models today, most models still fail in producing an appropriate winter warming pattern in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study ensemble sensitivity experiments were carried out with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model to assess the influence of different ozone climatologies on the atmospheric dynamics and in particular on the northern hemispheric winter warming. The ensemble experiments were perturbed by a single Tambora-like eruption. Larger meridional gradients in the lower stratospheric ozone favor the coupling of zonal wind anomalies between the stratosphere and the troposphere after the eruption. The associated sea level pressure, temperature, and precipitation patterns are more pronounced and the northern hemispheric winter warming is highly significant. Conversely, weaker meridional ozone gradients lead to a weaker response of the winter warming and the associated patterns. The differences in the number of stratosphere-troposphere coupling events between the ensembles experiments indicate a nonlinear response behavior of the dynamics with respect to the ozone and the volcanic forcing. Key Points Dynamic response to volcanic eruption depends on the ozone concentrations Stronger ozone gradients strengthen the dynamic response Result winter warming pattern is highly significant ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Muthers S.,University of Bern | Anet J.G.,ETH Zurich | Anet J.G.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Stenke A.,ETH Zurich | And 12 more authors.
Geoscientific Model Development | Year: 2014

The newly developed atmosphere-ocean-chemistry-climate model SOCOL-MPIOM is presented by demonstrating the influence of chemistry-climate interactions on the climate state and the variability. Therefore, we compare pre-industrial control simulations with (CHEM) and without (NOCHEM) interactive chemistry. In general, the influence of the chemistry on the mean state and the variability is small and mainly restricted to the stratosphere and mesosphere. The atmospheric dynamics mainly differ in polar regions, with slightly stronger polar vortices in the austral and boreal winter, respectively. The strengthening of the vortex is related to larger stratospheric temperature gradients, which are attributed to a parameterisation of the absorption of ozone and oxygen in different wavelength intervals, which is considered in the version with interactive chemistry only. A second reason for the temperature differences between CHEM and NOCHEM is related to diurnal variations in the ozone concentrations in the higher atmosphere, which are missing in NOCHEM. Furthermore, stratospheric water vapour concentrations substantially differ between the two experiments, but their effect on temperature is small. In both setups, the simulated intensity and variability of the northern polar vortex is inside the range of present-day observations. Additionally, the performance of SOCOL-MPIOM under changing external forcings is assessed for the period 1600-2000 using an ensemble of simulations. In the industrial period from 1850 onward SOCOL-MPIOM overestimates the global mean surface air temperature increase in comparison to observational data sets. Sensitivity simulations show that this overestimation can be attributed to a combination of factors: the solar forcing reconstruction, the simulated ozone changes, and incomplete aerosol effects and land use changes. © 2014 Author(s).


Anet J.G.,ETH Zurich | Muthers S.,University of Bern | Rozanov E.V.,ETH Zurich | Rozanov E.V.,Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center | And 10 more authors.
Climate of the Past | Year: 2014

The aim of this work is to elucidate the impact of changes in solar irradiance and energetic particles versus volcanic eruptions on tropospheric global climate during the Dalton Minimum (DM, AD 1780-1840). Separate variations in the (i) solar irradiance in the UV-C with wavelengths λ < 250 nm, (ii) irradiance at wavelengths λ > 250 nm, (iii) in energetic particle spectrum, and (iv) volcanic aerosol forcing were analyzed separately, and (v) in combination, by means of small ensemble calculations using a coupled atmosphere-ocean chemistry-climate model. Global and hemispheric mean surface temperatures show a significant dependence on solar irradiance at λ > 250 nm. Also, powerful volcanic eruptions in 1809, 1815, 1831 and 1835 significantly decreased global mean temperature by up to 0.5 K for 2-3 years after the eruption. However, while the volcanic effect is clearly discernible in the Southern Hemispheric mean temperature, it is less significant in the Northern Hemisphere, partly because the two largest volcanic eruptions occurred in the SH tropics and during seasons when the aerosols were mainly transported southward, partly because of the higher northern internal variability. In the simulation including all forcings, temperatures are in reasonable agreement with the tree ring-based temperature anomalies of the Northern Hemisphere. Interestingly, the model suggests that solar irradiance changes at λ < 250 nm and in energetic particle spectra have only an insignificant impact on the climate during the Dalton Minimum. This downscales the importance of top-down processes (stemming from changes at λ < 250 nm) relative to bottom-up processes (from λ > 250 nm). Reduction of irradiance at λ > 250 nm leads to a significant (up to 2%) decrease in the ocean heat content (OHC) between 0 and 300 m in depth, whereas the changes in irradiance at λ < 250 nm or in energetic particles have virtually no effect. Also, volcanic aerosol yields a very strong response, reducing the OHC of the upper ocean by up to 1.5%. In the simulation with all forcings, the OHC of the uppermost levels recovers after 8-15 years after volcanic eruption, while the solar signal and the different volcanic eruptions dominate the OHC changes in the deeper ocean and prevent its recovery during the DM. Finally, the simulations suggest that the volcanic eruptions during the DM had a significant impact on the precipitation patterns caused by a widening of the Hadley cell and a shift in the intertropical convergence zone. © Author(s) 2014.


Sokal K.R.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Skinner S.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Zhekov S.A.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Zhekov S.A.,Space Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

We present first results of a Chandra X-ray observation of the rare oxygen-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 142 (= Sand 5 = St 3) harbored in the young, heavily obscured cluster Berkeley 87. Oxygen-type WO stars are thought to be the most evolved of the WRs and progenitors of supernovae or gamma-ray bursts. As part of an X-ray survey of supposedly single WR stars, we observed WR 142 and the surrounding Berkeley 87 region with Chandra ACIS-I. We detect WR 142 as a faint yet extremely hard X-ray source. Due to weak emission, its nature as a thermal or non-thermal emitter is unclear and thus we discuss several emission mechanisms. Additionally, we report seven detections and eight non-detections by Chandra of massive OB stars in Berkeley 87, two of which are bright yet soft X-ray sources whose spectra provide a dramatic contrast to the hard emission from WR 142. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Skinner S.L.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Zhekov S.A.,Institute of Space Technology | Gudel M.,University of Vienna | Schmutz W.,Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

The short-period (1.64 d) near-contact eclipsing WN6 + O9 binary system CQ Cep provides an ideal laboratory for testing the predictions of X-ray colliding wind shock theory at close separation where the winds may not have reached terminal speeds before colliding. We present results of a Chandra X-ray observation of CQ Cep spanning ∼1 day during which a simultaneous Chandra optical light curve was acquired. Our primary objective was to compare the observed X-ray properties with colliding wind shock theory, which predicts that the hottest shock plasma (T ≳ 20 MK) will form on or near the line-of-centers between the stars. The X-ray spectrum is strikingly similar to apparently single WN6 stars such as WR 134 and spectral lines reveal plasma over a broad range of temperatures T∼4-40 MK. A deep optical eclipse was seen as the O star passed in front of the Wolf-Rayet star and we determine an orbital period Porb = 1.6412400 d. Somewhat surprisingly, no significant X-ray variability was detected. This implies that the hottest X-ray plasma is not confined to the region between the stars, at odds with the colliding wind picture and suggesting that other X-ray production mechanisms may be at work. Hydrodynamic simulations that account for such effects as radiative cooling and orbital motion will be needed to determine if the new Chandra results can be reconciled with the colliding wind picture. © 2015, Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.


Sheng J.-X.,ETH Zurich | Weisenstein D.K.,Harvard University | Luo B.-P.,ETH Zurich | Rozanov E.,ETH Zurich | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres | Year: 2015

The global atmospheric sulfur budget and its emission dependence have been investigated using the coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate model SOCOL-AER. The aerosol module comprises gaseous and aqueous sulfur chemistry and comprehensive microphysics. The particle distribution is resolved by 40 size bins spanning radii from 0.39 nm to 3.2 μm, including size-dependent particle composition. Aerosol radiative properties required by the climate model are calculated online from the aerosol module. The model successfully reproduces main features of stratospheric aerosols under nonvolcanic conditions, including aerosol extinctions compared to Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) and Halogen Occultation Experiment, and size distributions compared to in situ measurements. The calculated stratospheric aerosol burden is 109 Gg of sulfur, matching the SAGE II-based estimate (112 Gg). In terms of fluxes through the tropopause, the stratospheric aerosol layer is due to about 43% primary tropospheric aerosol, 28% SO2, 23% carbonyl sulfide (OCS), 4% H2S, and 2% dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Turning off emissions of the short-lived species SO2, H2S, and DMS shows that OCS alone still establishes about 56% of the original stratospheric aerosol burden. Further sensitivity simulations reveal that anticipated increases in anthropogenic SO2 emissions in China and India have a larger influence on stratospheric aerosols than the same increase in Western Europe or the U.S., due to deep convection in the western Pacific region. However, even a doubling of Chinese and Indian emissions is predicted to increase the stratospheric background aerosol burden only by 9%. In contrast, small to moderate volcanic eruptions, such as that of Nabro in 2011, may easily double the stratospheric aerosol loading. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

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