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Kehler T.,Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine | Kehler T.,University of Rijeka | Laskarin G.,Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine | Laskarin G.,University of Rijeka | And 8 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses

Increased presence of immune mediator and cytotoxic/apoptotic molecule granulysin was noticed in different tissues during pathological processes with the domination of Th1 over Th2 mediated immunity. Beside granulysin expression in T and NKT cells, activated NK cells are thought to be the major source of chemotactic 15. kDa and cytotoxic 9. kDa granulysin in vivo. As NK cells are the principal joint's tissue-infiltrating lymphocyte subset, we hypothesized that granulysin mediated human cell death (apoptosis) could be responsible for the relatively silent damage of the joint's tissue without clinically notable signs of systemic inflammation in the patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The analyzes of the presence and frequency of granulysin expressing lymphocytes at protein and gene levels in peripheral blood and synovial samples and/or the samples of joint's tissue after the joint replacement therapy in patients with OA could give the initial insight to evaluate our hypothesis. It would be of the particular interest to differentiate the expression of 9. kDa and 15. kDa granulysin forms in the effector cells, since only the shorter form exhibits cytotoxic properties. The measurement of granulysin mediated early apoptosis in human NK sensitive K562 cells could be suitable in vitro model for evaluating granulysin activity. Furthermore, disturbed balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in OA patients, could influence the level of the granulysin expression. Having in mind that the granulysin and its regulation is still unknown in the pathogenesis of OA, it could be worth to explore this important pro-inflammatory, cytotoxic/apoptotic mediator. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

De La Llave-Rincon A.I.,Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine | De La Llave-Rincon A.I.,Rey Juan Carlos University | Fernandez-De-Las-Penas C.,Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine | Fernandez-De-Las-Penas C.,Rey Juan Carlos University | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Journal of Pain

Objective: To determine the differences in widespread pressure pain and thermal hypersensitivity in women with minimal, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls. Methods: A total of 72 women with CTS (19 with minimal, 18 with moderate, and 35 with severe) and 19 healthy age-matched women participated. Pressure pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, the C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel, and the tibialis anterior muscle. In addition, warm and cold detection thresholds and heat and cold pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence. All outcome parameters were assessed by an assessor blinded to the participants condition. RESULTS: No significant differences in pain parameters among patients with minimal, moderate, and severe CTS were found. The results showed that PPT were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS as compared with healthy controls (all, P<0.001). In addition, patients with CTS also showed lower heat pain threshold and reduced cold pain threshold compared with controls (P<0.001). No significant sensory differences between minimal, moderate, or severe CTS were found. Conclusions: The similar widespread pressure and thermal hypersensitivity in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS and pain intensity suggests that increased pain sensitivity is not related to electrodiagnostic findings. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Laskarin G.,University of Rijeka | Persic V.,Hospital for Medical Rehabilitation of the Hearth and Lung Diseases and Rheumatism Thalassotherapia Opatija | Persic V.,University of Rijeka | Kukic S.R.,Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine | And 10 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses

We propose that pathological remodeling in joint tissues of osteoarthritis (OA) patients persistently stimulates local secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, which overflow into the blood, activating leukocytes that impair endothelial function and accelerate the atherosclerotic process. During periods of pain, endothelial dysfunction progresses more aggressively due to elevated secretion of these pro-inflammatory mediators, which are involved in both atherosclerosis and the sensation of pain. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their antagonists, activating and decoy receptors of the broad interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-17 families, IL-15, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 should be measured in peripheral blood samples of OA patients and compared with (I) OA clinical severity; (II) subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis; (III) ischemic heart disease risk factors; (IV) soluble factors indicating endothelial dysfunction; (V) degree of bone destruction; and (VI) results of a six-minute walk test. Arthroscopy and joint replacement surgery provide an opportunity to estimate mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory mediators in specimens of synovial fluid, synovial membrane, cartilage, and/or subarticular bone. A range of methods, including questionnaires, X-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistology, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription and in situ polymerase chain reaction are available. Understanding the inflammatory and immune mechanisms underlying OA may allow the early identification of patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, independently of classical coronary risk factors. Pain may constitute an extrinsic indicator of currently worsening endothelial function. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

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