Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory

Oxford, United Kingdom

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Oxford, United Kingdom
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News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The National Academy of Sciences announced today the election of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. The National Academy of Sciences announced today the election of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Those elected today bring the total number of active members to 2,290 and the total number of foreign associates to 475. Foreign associates are nonvoting members of the Academy, with citizenship outside the United States. Newly elected members and their affiliations at the time of election are: Bates, Frank S.; Regents Professor, department of chemical engineering and materials science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Beilinson, Alexander; David and Mary Winton Green University Professor, department of mathematics, The University of Chicago, Chicago Bell, Stephen P.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor of biology, department of biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; John J. (1929) and Dorothy Wilson Professor, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Buzsáki, György; professor, Neuroscience Institute, departments of physiology and neuroscience, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York City Carroll, Dana; distinguished professor, department of biochemistry, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City Cohen, Judith G.; Kate Van Nuys Page Professor of Astronomy, department of astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Crabtree, Robert H.; Conkey P. Whitehead Professor of Chemistry, department of chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Cronan, John E.; professor and head of microbiology, professor of biochemistry, and Microbiology Alumni Professor, department of microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Cummins, Christopher C.; Henry Dreyfus Professor of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Darensbourg, Marcetta Y.; distinguished professor of chemistry, department of chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station DeVore, Ronald A.; The Walter E. Koss Professor and distinguished professor, department of mathematics, Texas A&M University, College Station Diamond, Douglas W.; Merton H. Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance, The University of Chicago, Chicago Doe, Chris Q.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor of biology, Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene Duflo, Esther; Co-founder and co-Director of the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, and Professor of Poverty Alleviation and Development Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Edwards, Robert Haas; professor of neurology and physiology, University of California, San Francisco Firestone, Mary K.; professor and associate dean of instruction and student affairs, department of environmental science policy and management, University of California, Berkeley Fischhoff, Baruch; Howard Heinz University Professor, department of social and decision sciences and department of engineering and public policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh Ginty, David D.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and Edward R. and Anne G. Lefler Professor of Neurobiology, department of neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Glass, Christopher K.; professor of cellular and molecular medicine and professor of medicine, University of California, San Diego Goldman, Yale E.; professor, department of physiology, Pennsylvania Muscle Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia González, Gabriela; spokesperson, LIGO Scientific Collaboration; and professor, department of physics and astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Hagan, John L.; John D. MacArthur Professor of Sociology and Law, department of sociology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Hatten, Mary E.; Frederick P. Rose Professor, laboratory of developmental neurobiology, The Rockefeller University, New York City Hebard, Arthur F.; distinguished professor of physics, department of physics, University of Florida, Gainesville Jensen, Klavs F.; Warren K. Lewis Professor of Chemical Engineering and professor of materials science and engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Kahn, Barbara B.; vice chair for research strategy and George R. Minot Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Kinder, Donald R.; Philip E. Converse Collegiate Professor of Political Science and Psychology and research scientist, department of political science, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Lazar, Mitchell A.; Willard and Rhoda Ware Professor in Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, and director, Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia Locksley, Richard M.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor, department of medicine (infectious diseases), and Marion and Herbert Sandler Distinguished Professorship in Asthma Research, University of California, San Francisco Lozano, Guillermina; professor and chair, department of genetics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston Mavalvala, Nergis; Curtis and Kathleen Marble Professor of Astrophysics and associate head, department of physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Moore, Jeffrey Scott; Murchison-Mallory Professor of Chemistry, department of chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Moore, Melissa J.; chief scientific officer, mRNA Research Platform, Moderna Therapeutics, Cambridge, Mass.; and Eleanor Eustis Farrington Chair of Cancer Research Professor, RNA Therapeutics Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester Nunnari, Jodi M.; professor, department of molecular and cellular biology, University of California, Davis O'Farrell, Patrick H.; professor of biochemistry and biophysics, department of biochemistry and biophysics, University of California, San Francisco Ort, Donald R.; research leader and Robert Emerson Professor, USDA/ARS Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, departments of plant biology and crop sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Parker, Gary; professor, department of civil and environmental engineering and department of geology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Patapoutian, Ardem; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and professor, department of molecular and cellular neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif. Pellegrini, Claudio; distinguished professor emeritus, department of physics and astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles Pikaard, Craig, S.; investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation; and distinguished professor of biology and molecular and cellular biochemistry, department of biology, Indiana University, Bloomington Read, Nicholas; Henry Ford II Professor of Physics and professor of applied physics and mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Roediger, Henry L.; James S. McDonnell Distinguished and University Professor of Psychology, department of psychology and brain sciences, Washington University, St. Louis Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Weinberg Family Distinguished Professor of Life Sciences, and professor, departments of molecular biosciences and of chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Seto, Karen C.; professor, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, Conn. Seyfarth, Robert M.; professor of psychology and member of the graduate groups in anthropology and biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Sibley, L. David; Alan A. and Edith L. Wolff Distinguished Professor in Molecular Microbiology, department of molecular microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Spielman, Daniel A.; Henry Ford II Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics, departments of computer science and mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. Sudan, Madhu; Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Tishkoff, Sarah; David and Lyn Silfen University Professor, departments of genetics and biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Van Essen, David C.; Alumni Professor of Neurobiology, department of anatomy and neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Vidale, John E.; professor, department of earth and space sciences, University of Washington, Seattle Wennberg, Paul O.; R. Stanton Avery Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Environmental Science and Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Wilson, Rachel I.; Martin Family Professor of Basic Research in the Field of Neurobiology, department of neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Zachos, James C.; professor, department of earth and planetary sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Newly elected foreign associates, their affiliations at the time of election, and their country of citizenship are: Addadi, Lia; professor and Dorothy and Patrick E. Gorman Chair of Biological Ultrastructure, department of structural science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel (Israel/Italy) Folke, Carl; director and professor, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden (Sweden) Freeman, Kenneth C.; Duffield Professor of Astronomy, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek (Australia) Lee, Sang Yup; distinguished professor, dean, and director, department of chemical and biomolecular engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea (South Korea) Levitzki, Alexander; professor of biochemistry, unit of cellular signaling, department of biological chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel) Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Tam Wah-Ching Professorship in Medical Science, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China (Sri Lanka) Robinson, Carol Vivien; Dr. Lee's Professor of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, England (United Kingdom) Thesleff, Irma; academician of science, professor, and research director, developmental biology program, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland) Underdal, Arild; professor of political science, department of political science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (Norway) The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit institution that was established under a congressional charter signed by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. It recognizes achievement in science by election to membership, and -- with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine -- provides science, engineering, and health policy advice to the federal government and other organizations.


Ortega Arroyo J.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Andrecka J.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Spillane K.M.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Billington N.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 3 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2014

Optical detection of individual proteins requires fluorescent labeling. Cavity and plasmonic methodologies enhance single molecule signatures in the absence of any labels but have struggled to demonstrate routine and quantitative single protein detection. Here, we used interferometric scattering microscopy not only to detect but also to image and nanometrically track the motion of single myosin 5a heavy meromyosin molecules without the use of labels or any nanoscopic amplification. Together with the simple experimental arrangement, an intrinsic independence from strong electronic transition dipoles and a detection limit of <60 kDa, our approach paves the way toward nonresonant, label-free sensing and imaging of nanoscopic objects down to the single protein level. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Degiacomi M.T.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Degiacomi M.T.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Dal Peraro M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Structure | Year: 2013

Proteins often assemble in multimeric complexes to perform a specific biologic function. However, trapping these high-order conformations is difficult experimentally. Therefore, predicting how proteins assemble using in silico techniques can be of great help. The size of the associated conformational space and the fact that proteins are intrinsically flexible structures make this optimization problem extremely challenging. Nonetheless, known experimental spatial restraints can guide the search process, contributing to model biologically relevant states. We present here a swarm intelligence optimization protocol able to predict the arrangement of protein symmetric assemblies by exploiting a limited amount of experimental restraints and steric interactions. Importantly, within this scheme the native flexibility of each protein subunit is taken into account as extracted from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that this is a key ingredient for the prediction of biologically functional assemblies when, upon oligomerization, subunits explore activated states undergoing significant conformational changes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wortham N.C.,University of Southampton | Martinez M.,University of Southampton | Gordiyenko Y.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Robinson C.V.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Proud C.G.,University of Southampton
FASEB Journal | Year: 2014

Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2 and a critical regulator of protein synthesis, (e.g., as part of the integrated stress response). Certain mutations in the EIF2B genes cause leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM), an often serious neurological disorder. Comprising 5 subunits, α-ε (eIF2Bε being the catalytic one), eIF2B has always been considered an αβγ δε heteropentamer. We have analyzed the subunit interactions within mammalian eIF2B by using a combination of mass spectrometry and in vivo studies of overexpressed complexes to gain further insight into the subunit arrangement of the complex. Our data reveal that eIF2B is actually decameric, a dimer of eIF2B(βγδε) tetramers stabilized by 2 copies of eIF2Bα.We also demonstrate a pivotal role for eIF2Bδ in the formation of eIF2B(βγδε) tetramers. eIF2B(αβ γδε)2 decamers show greater binding to eIF2 than to eIF2B(βγδε) tetramers, which may underlie the increased activity of the former. We examined the levels of eIF2B subunits in a panel of different mouse tissues and identified different levels of eIF2B subunits, particularly eIF2Bα, which implies heterogeneity in the cellular proportions of eIF2B(αβγδε) and eIF2B(βγ δε) complexes, with important implications for the regulation of translation in individual cell types. © FASEB.


Shen H.-H.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Thomas R.K.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Taylor P.,Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Langmuir | Year: 2010

We have investigated the formation of supported surfactin-phospholipid mixed bilayers using neutron reflectometry. Micellar mixtures of phospholipid (diphosphatidyl choline, DPPC), surfactin, and β-D-dodecyl maltoside were used to make the deposition. When the surfactin concentration is at its critical micelle concentration (CMC = 6 ×10- 6 M) in the bulk solution, there is no adsorption at all on the silica. When the surfactin concentration is lowered below the CMC, a mixed bilayer of surfactin and DPPC is formed. Since surfactin does not adsorb on silica from solutions of surfactin alone, this shows that there is a strong attraction between surfactin and DPPC. The variation of adsorbed amount, composition, and structure of the adsorbed layer are consistent with the attractive interaction between surfactin and DPPC and with their respective negative and positive affinities for the silica surface. Three phospholipid isotopic contrasts were measured and used to define the composition and structure of the surfactin-phospholipid bilayer. The maximum amount of surfactin in the bilayer reaches a mole fraction of about 0.2 and this is located in the outer leaflet of the bilayer within the headgroup and part of the adjacent chain region. © 2009 American Chemical Society.


Liebel M.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Schnedermann C.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Kukura P.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wave packet dynamics during the S2→S1 internal conversion in β-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direct feedback on the role of different vibrational coordinates in the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Katelhon E.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Compton R.G.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory
Analyst | Year: 2014

The recent decade saw much interest in sensors based on nanoparticles. Such sensors typically employ sensing mechanisms that utilise the adsorption of analyte species on the nanoparticle surfaces, while adsorption induces changes in the physical properties of the nanoparticles. In this work, we introduce an analytical model for the rate of adsorption of analyte species on the nanoparticle surface. Expressions for the fractional surface coverage and the number of adsorbed molecules as a function of time are derived assuming spherical nanoparticles. Moreover, we provide values for common experimental conditions and show that for small nanoparticles (r < 10 nm) a surface coverages of 30% can be reached in less than 1 s at adsorbent concentrations as low as 50 nM. © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Lu M.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory | Compton R.G.,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory
Electroanalysis | Year: 2013

A square wave voltammetric procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Fe(III) was developed at an unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrode and a screen printed electrode (SPE). This simple procedure was applied to real samples of commercially bottled mineral water. Sensitive results in the micromolar region could be achieved without modification of the electrode. Using the WHO guideline limits for the Fe(III) concentration in drinking water, recovery percentages at an EPPG gave 103% and 107%, and 98.6% and 95.0% at a SPE for the 5.36μM (0.3mgL-1) and 53.6μM (3.0mgL-1) additions of Fe(III), respectively. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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