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Foulds H.J.A.,University of British Columbia | Foulds H.J.A.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,University of British Columbia | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Canadians currently experience elevated rates of chronic conditions compared with past populations, and ethnic differences in the experience of select chronic conditions have previously been identified. This investigation examined the prevalence of select chronic conditions among an ethnically diverse convenience sample of British Columbian adults. A sample of adults (≥18 years) from around the province of British Columbia, including Aboriginal (n = 991), European (n = 3650), East Asian (n = 466), and South Asian (n = 228), were evaluated. Individuals reported their personal histories of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and physical activity behaviour. Direct measures of health status included body mass index, waist circumference, resting blood pressure, and nonfasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1C. All ethnic groups were found to have high rates of low HDL (>33%), physical inactivity (>31%), hypertension (>16%), and ethnic-specifically defined obesity (>23%) and abdominal obesity (>33%). Aboriginal and South Asian populations generally demonstrated higher rates of select chronic conditions. The implementation of ethnic-specific body composition recommendations further underscores this poorer health status among South Asian populations. Actions to improve chronic condition rates should be undertaken among all ethnic groups, with particular attention to Aboriginal and South Asian populations.


Foulds H.J.A.,University of British Columbia | Foulds H.J.A.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Shubair M.M.,University of Northern British Columbia | Warburton D.E.R.,University of British Columbia | Warburton D.E.R.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Cardiometabolic risk is a growing concern in Western society in which rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity are on the rise. Aboriginal populations currently experience unequal burdens of these chronic conditions. However, limited information regarding the experience of cardiometabolic risk among Métis populations is available. This review sought to evaluate the cardiometabolic risk experience among Métis populations in Canada. Canada's Métis population currently experiences greater burdens of chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease than that of the non-Aboriginal population. Métis populations also experience poorer life expectancy, education, and employment attainments, and reduced access to health care services compared with non-Aboriginal populations. Interventions addressing the deficiencies in sociodemographic, lifestyle, and social determinants among the Métis population might help combat rising experiences of chronic diseases faced by these people. Though the burden of chronic conditions, sociodemographic, lifestyle challenges, and social determinants of health among Métis populations are generally less than that of First Nations populations, Métis people experience these health challenges and influencing factors are generally more similar to that of First Nations than non-Aboriginal peoples. Subsequently, Métis populations need to be included in plans and strategies to reduce chronic conditions among Aboriginal populations. In conclusion, Métis populations experience greater burden of cardiometabolic risk and its components than the general Canadian population. © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society.


Foulds H.J.A.,University of British Columbia | Foulds H.J.A.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Foulds H.J.A.,University of Saskatchewan | Bredin S.S.D.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Human Hypertension | Year: 2016

Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (38±18 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Métis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.6±6.8 ms mm Hg -1 vs 16.9±10.0 ms mm Hg -1, P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.9±3.7 ml mm Hg -1 × 100 vs 6.4±2.3 ml mm Hg -1 × 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.61±0.14 mm vs 0.57±0.08 mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.7±2.5 m s -1 vs 5.1±2.3 m s -1, P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Foulds H.J.A.,University of British Columbia | Foulds H.J.A.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,University of British Columbia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2012

Background and Objective: Hypertension and obesity are major contributors to cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between these conditions is known to vary among ethnicities. However, this relationship has not previously been examined in aboriginal populations. The present investigation aimed to identify and compare this relationship among white (n=3566), aboriginal (n=850), East Asian (n=446), and South Asian (n=222) individuals from the province of British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference were directly measured along with self-reported antihypertensive medication usage. Relative risk ratios were calculated to evaluate the risk of hypertension among individuals of varying BMI and waist circumference measurements. The relative risks of hypertension were compared both within and between four ethnic groups. Results: Greater relative risks for hypertension were observed among individuals with increased BMI or increased waist circumference among all four ethnic groups. Aboriginal individuals appear to experience the greatest increases in relative risk for hypertension with increased BMI or waist circumference compared to other ethnic groups. The differences in the risk of developing hypertension between aboriginal and white populations appear to be largely associated with differences in body composition (i.e., BMI or waist circumference). East Asian and South Asian populations experience greater relative risk for hypertension than white populations at the same level of BMI or waist circumference. Conclusion: Hypertension prevention and treatment strategies among aboriginal, East Asian, and South Asian populations should target reducing fat mass and abdominal fat. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Foulds H.J.A.,University of British Columbia | Foulds H.J.A.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,University of British Columbia | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

Though historically rare, Aboriginal individuals continue to experience greater levels of cardiovascular disease than the general Canadian population. Increasing evidence indicates rising sedentary behaviors from the traditional healthy and active lifestyles of this population. Objective: This investigation aimed to examine the health benefits of a community-based physical activity intervention for Aboriginal Canadians. Methods: From 2007-2010, 273 participants from the province of British Columbia, Canada were recruited through 21 Aboriginal communities representing male and females of wide ranging ages and health statuses. Participants attended identical testing of body composition, blood pressure, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterols, and physical activity behavior pre-and post-training. Participants completed one of three self-selected 13. week interventions: walking (n = 149), walk/running (n = 86), or running (n = 27). Results: Improvements in health measures were observed for both male and female participants of all age groups and all three training programs. Male and female participants' improvements included waist circumference: 2.7 cm and 2.2. cm, total cholesterol: 0.18. mmol/L and 0.12. mmol/L, and systolic blood pressure: 2.6. mm Hg and 1.5. mm Hg, respectively. Conclusions: The self-selected intensities program was successful in improving health status and physical activity for Aboriginal adults of all ages, genders and activity programs. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Foulds H.J.A.,University of British Columbia | Foulds H.J.A.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,University of British Columbia | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2014

Introduction: The health benefits of exercise are well established. However, the relationship between exercise volume and intensity and health benefits remains unclear, particularly the benefits of low-volume and intensity exercise. Purpose: The primary purpose of this investigation was, therefore, to examine the dose-response relationship between exercise volume and intensity with derived health benefits including volumes and intensity of activity well below international recommendations. Methods: Generally healthy, active participants (n = 72; age = 44 ± 13 years) were assigned randomly to control (n = 10) or one of five 13-week exercise programs: (1) 10-min brisk walking 1×/week (n = 10), (2) 10-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), (3) 30-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 18), (4) 60-min brisk walking 3×/week (n = 10), and (5) 30-min running 3×/week (n = 14), in addition to their regular physical activity. Health measures evaluated pre- and post-training including blood pressure, body composition, fasting lipids and glucose, and maximal aerobic power (VO2max). Results: Health improvements were observed among programs at least 30 min in duration, including body composition and VO2max: 30-min walking 28.8-34.5 mL kg -1 min-1, 60-min walking 25.1-28.9 mL kg-1 min-1, and 30-min running 32.4-36.4 mL kg-1 min -1. The greater intensity running program also demonstrated improvements in triglycerides. Conclusion: In healthy active individuals, a physical activity program of at least 30 min in duration for three sessions/per week is associated with consistent improvements in health status. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Foulds H.J.A.,University of British Columbia | Foulds H.J.A.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Bredin S.S.D.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | Warburton D.E.R.,University of British Columbia | Warburton D.E.R.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2015

Indigenous populations currently experience greater rates of cardiovascular disease. Although ethnic differences in cardiovascular responses to exercise have previously been identified, these responses among indigenous populations are unknown. PURPOSE: This investigation aimed to evaluate the vascular responses to aerobic exercise of Canadian indigenous and European adults. METHODS: Twelve age- and sex-matched indigenous and European adults completed a cycle ergometer maximal aerobic power test and submaximal 30 min of 60% maximal aerobic capacity on two separate days. Blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, baroreceptor sensitivity, arterial compliance, vascular resistance, and intima-media thickness were directly measured before and after aerobic exercises. RESULTS: Vascular responses to exercise were generally similar between indigenous and European adults including decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity and vascular resistance after maximal exercise. No changes in intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance were observed after exercise in either group. However, after submaximal exercise, only European adults demonstrated reductions in baroreceptor sensitivity (spectral: 9.2 ± 4.3 to 11.5 ± 6.7 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.41, vs 15.8 ± 8.3 m·s to 8.9 ± 5.7 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.02; sequence: 14.6 ± 5.4 to 16.5 ± 11.0 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.48, vs 26.2 ± 10.5 m·s to 15.4 ± 9.4 ms·mm Hg, P = 0.02). Similarly, decreases in blood pressure after exercise were observed only among European adults. CONCLUSIONS: Indigenous adults demonstrated vascular responses similar to those demonstrated by European adults, although blood pressure was only observed to decrease among European adults after maximal and submaximal exercise, and baroreceptor sensitivity, after submaximal exercise.


Giacomantonio N.B.,Dalhousie University | Giacomantonio N.B.,Health science Center | Bredin S.S.D.,University of British Columbia | Bredin S.S.D.,Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Background: This systematic review sought to evaluate critically the health benefits of physical activity among persons with atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is increasing in Western society. While health benefits of physical activity are well established, benefits of physical activity among individuals with AF are not clearly identified. Methods: Literature was retrieved systematically through searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane), cross-referencing, and drawing on the authors' knowledge. Identified original research articles evaluated health benefits of physical activity among persons with AF or effects of physical activity on AF incidence. From 1056 individual citations, 36 eligible articles were identified. Results: Moderate-intensity physical activity was found to improve exercise capacity, quality of life, and the ability to carry out activities of daily living among persons with AF (n = 6). Increased incidence of AF was not associated with physical activity among the general population (n = 2), although long-term vigorous endurance exercise may be associated with increased incidence of AF (n = 7), and greater risks may be associated with high-intensity physical activity among those with AF (n = 2). Moderate-intensity physical activity among individuals with AF does not adversely alter training outcomes, functional capacity, morbidity, or mortality compared with those in sinus rhythm (n = 12). Physical activity may improve management and treatment of AF (n = 6) and, among at-risk populations, may reduce incidence of AF (n = 3). Conclusions: In conclusion, moderate-intensity physical activity should be encouraged among persons with or at risk of AF. Further research is needed. © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society.


PubMed | University of British Columbia and Physical Activity Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of human hypertension | Year: 2016

Indigenous populations currently experience greater cardiovascular disease burdens. However, subclinical vascular structure and function among these populations is not well known. This investigation evaluated vascular structure and function among Canadian Indigenous populations. Blood pressure, body composition, pulse-wave velocity (PWV), baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), arterial compliance and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured. Vascular measures were evaluated across sexes and age groups. Vascular assessments were conducted among 55 Indigenous adults (3818 years, 29 Female), including both First Nations (N=36) and Mtis (N=19) individuals. Some differences in vascular measures were found between males and females, respectively (spectral BRS: 9.66.8msmmHg(-1) vs 16.910.0msmmHg(-1), P=0.01; small arterial compliance: 8.93.7mlmmHg(-1) 100 vs 6.42.3mlmmHg(-1) 100, P=0.004), with similar measures of overall IMT (0.610.14mm vs 0.570.08mm, P=0.19) and central PWV (5.72.5ms(-1) vs 5.12.3ms(-1), P=0.58). Greater IMT, and lower BRS and arterial compliance were identified among older adults. This relatively healthy population demonstrated healthy vascular measures, with poorer measures among older individuals.

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