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Cedar City, GA, United States

Pan L.,Physical Activity and Obesity
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2015

Introduction Racial/ethnic differences in recent obesity trends have not been reported among young low-income children. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in obesity prevalence from 1998 through 2011 by race/ethnicity among low-income children aged 2-4 years. Methods The study was based on measured weight and height records of 29,040,851 participants of federally funded health and nutrition programs from 30 states and the District of Columbia, which provided data each year from 1998 through 2011. More than 80% of data were collected through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and about 50% of eligible children were included. In 2014, joinpoint regression was used to identify the inflection years when significant changes in obesity trends occurred and piecewise logistic regression was used to examine annual changes in obesity prevalence before and after the inflection years controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Results The overall obesity prevalence increased from 13.05% in 1998 to 15.21% in 2003, and decreased slightly to 14.74% in 2011. The increasing trends among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children began decreasing in 2003. Asian/Pacific Islander was the only racial/ethnic group with a continual decreasing trend in obesity prevalence from 1998 (14.34%) through 2011 (11.66%). Among American Indian/Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence consistently increased from 16.32% in 1998 to 21.11% in 2011, although the annual increases slowed since 2001. Conclusions The study findings indicate modest recent declines in obesity prevalence for most racial/ethnic groups of low-income children aged 2-4 years. However, obesity prevalence remains high. Source

Freedman D.S.,Physical Activity and Obesity | Horlick M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Berenson G.S.,Tulane University
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: Although estimation of percentage body fat with the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations (PBFSlaughter) is widely used, the accuracy of this method has not been well studied. Objective: The objective was to determine the accuracy of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations. Design: We compared agreement between PBFSlaughter and estimations derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (PBFDXA) in 1169 children in the Pediatric Rosetta Body Composition Project and the relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors, as compared with body mass index (BMI), in 6725 children in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Results: PBFSlaughter was highly correlated (r = 0.90) with PBFDXA, but it markedly overestimated levels of PBFDXA in children with large skinfold thicknesses. In the 65 boys with a sum of skinfold thicknesses (subscapular- plus triceps-skinfold thicknesses) ≥50 mm, PBF Slaughter overestimated PBFDXA by 12 percentage points. The comparable overestimation in girls with a high skinfold sum was 6 percentage points.We also found that, after adjustment for sex and age, BMI showed slightly stronger associations with lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values than did PBFSlaughter. Conclusions: These results indicate that PBFSlaughter, which was developed among a group of much thinner children and adolescents, is fairly accurate among nonobese children, but markedly overestimates the body fatness of children who have thick skinfold thicknesses. Furthermore, PBFSlaughter has no advantage over sex- And age-adjusted BMIs at identifying children who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease based on lipid, lipoprotein, insulin, and blood pressure values. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Brown D.R.,Physical Activity and Obesity
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

The Community Preventive Services Task Force concludes there is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity at the population level. Additional research is needed to determine effectiveness. Source

Freedman D.S.,Physical Activity and Obesity | Ford E.S.,Adult and Community Health
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Several studies showed that the waist circumference of US adults has increased over the past 25 y. However, because of the high correlation between waist circumference and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (r ∼ 0.9), it is uncertain if these trends in waist circumference exceed those expected on the basis of BMI changes over this time period. Objective: We assessed whether the recent trend in waist circumference was independent of changes in BMI, age, and race-ethnicity. Design: We analyzed data from the 1999-2000 through 2011-2012 cycles of the NHANES. Results: The mean waist circumference increased by ∼ 2 cm (inmen) and ∼4 cm (in women) in adults in the United States over this 12-y period. In men, this increase was very close to what would be expected because of the 0.7 increase in mean BMI over this period. However, in women, most of the secular increase in waist circumference appeared to be independent of changes in BMI (mean: 0.6), age, and raceethnicity over the 12-y period. We estimated that, independent of changes in these covariates, the mean waist circumference increased by 0.2 cm in men and 2.4 cm in women from 1999-2000 through 2011-2012; only the latter estimate was statistically significant. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, in women but not men, the recent secular trend in waist circumference is greater than what would be expected on the basis of changes in BMI. Possible reasons for this secular increase, along with sex differences, are uncertain. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

O'Sullivan E.J.,Cornell University | Perrine C.G.,Physical Activity and Obesity | Rasmussen K.M.,Cornell University
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Compared with normal-weight women, women with obesity experience poorer breastfeeding outcomes. Successful breastfeeding among women with obesity is important for achieving national breastfeeding goals. Objectives: The objectives were to determine whether the negative association between obesity and any or exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 2 mo postpartum is mediated through breastfeeding problems that occur in the first 2 wk postpartum and if this association differs by parity. Methods: Mothers (1151 normal-weight and 580 obese) in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II provided information on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, body mass index, and breastfeeding outcomes. At 1 mo postpartum, participants reported the breastfeeding problems they experienced in the first 2 wk postpartum from a predefined list of 17 options. We used factor analysis to condense these problems into 4 explanatory variables; continuous factor scores were computed for use in further analyses. We used maximum likelihood logistic regression to assess mediation of the association between obesity and breastfeeding outcomes through early breastfeeding problems. Results: No significant effect of obesity was found on any breastfeeding at 1 or 2 mo. At 1 mo postpartum, for both primiparous and multiparous women, there was a significant direct effect of obesity on exclusive breastfeeding and a significant indirect effect of obesity through early breastfeeding problems related to the explanatory mediating variable "Insufficient Milk" (throughout the remainder of the Abstract, this factor will be denoted by upper case notation). At 2 mo postpartum both the direct effect of obesity and the indirect effect through Insufficient Milk were significant in primiparous women but only the indirect effect remained significant in multiparous women. Conclusions: Early problems related to Insufficient Milk may partially explain the association between obesity and poor exclusive breastfeeding outcomes. Women who are obese, particularly those reporting breastfeeding problems that grouped in the Insufficient Milk factor in the early postpartum period, may benefit from additional breastfeeding support. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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