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Bang Khen, Thailand

Ahmed I.,University of Maryland University College | Jangsawang W.,University of Maryland University College | Jangsawang W.,Phranakhon Rajabhat University | Gupta A.K.,University of Maryland University College
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

Mangrove is a biomass material that grows in wetland sea waters and is often used to produce charcoal due to its unique characteristics of long and sustained burning and negligible residue. High temperature pyrolysis has been conducted for mangrove biomass in a laboratory scale semi-batch reactor. The effect of reactor temperature on syngas yield and syngas characteristics has been investigated. Reactor temperature was varied from 600 to 900 °C in 100 °C intervals. The increase in reactor temperature resulted in increased syngas yield, hydrogen yield and energy yield. Evolutionary behavior of the syngas characteristics has also been investigated. The increase in reactor temperature increased the peak value of syngas flow rate, hydrogen flow rate and output power. The increase in reactor temperature decreased the time duration of pyrolysis. Cumulative yield of syngas, hydrogen and energy was calculated based on the time dependent relationship. Higher reactor temperatures shortened the time duration required for 99% release of syngas, hydrogen and energy. For example, time duration required for 99% yield of hydrogen was approximately 73. min at 600 °C and only about 26. min at 900 °C. Required time duration for 99% yield of energy was ∼62. min at 600 °C and ∼15. min at 900 °C. The gasification of the same material at 900 °C has been carried out to determine the role of gasifying agent on the fate of material and resulting syngas properties. The results showed gasification yielded more syngas, hydrogen and energy than that obtained from pyrolysis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

In this study, cementitious materials (here defined as a high-performance cement paste produced by mixing Type 1 Portland cement with an effective amount of water) were manufactured in accelerated conditions using microwave-assisted low-pressure processing (i.e., accelerated curing). Based on the concept that the hydration reaction of cementitious materials comprises three main periods - a dormant period, an acceleration period, and a deceleration period - process parameters were determined for the most effective period (acceleration) for producing paste via microwave processing. The time-dependent dielectric characteristics of the cementitious paste and the water-cement ratio by mass influenced the temperature, i.e., caused it to increase, and the properties of the microwave-cured paste. The results show that the use of microwave-assisted low-pressure processing improved the paste's mechanical properties. Specifically, microwave energy can accelerate compressive strength development 15 min after the completion of microwave-assisted low-pressure curing. With a delay time of 60 min, microwave energy can process the paste almost a day faster than water curing, which is the standard method for curing paste. The use of microwave energy, therefore, can significantly reduce the required energy and production time in the manufacture of high-performance paste. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Rattanadecho P.,Rangsit University | Makul N.,Phranakhon Rajabhat University
Drying Technology | Year: 2016

Offering advantages of energy-saving rapid drying rates, short processing times, deep penetration of the microwave energy, instantaneous and precise electronic control, and clean heating processes, microwave-assisted drying (MWD) has become a popular method that is currently used for many materials and processes. This article presents a systematic and comprehensive review of experimental and theoretical studies regarding the kinetic mechanisms of MWD. Factors affecting, methods for measuring, and applications of the dielectric property are discussed. From the experimental perspective, laboratory- and commercial-scale MWD systems are elaborated, including the equipment used and the stability, safety, and regulation of MWD systems. Theoretical investigations of thermal and nonthermal equilibrium models and moving-load computational models are discussed. Finally, some future trends in the research and development of MWD systems are suggested. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Gonzalez-Carranza Z.H.,University of Nottingham | Shahid A.A.,University of Punjab | Zhang L.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Liu Y.,Mars Foods China Co. | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

Abscission is the consequence of a specialized layer of cells undergoing a complex series of molecular and biochemical events. Analysis of the specific molecular changes associated with abscission is hampered by contamination from neighboring nonseparating tissues. Moreover, studies of abscission frequently involve the examination of events that take place in isolated segments of tissue exposed to nonphysiological concentrations of ethylene or indole-3-acetic acid for protracted periods (more than 24 h) of time. To resolve these problems, we have adopted the use of a transgenic line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) where the promoter of an abscission-specific polygalacturonase gene (At2g41850/ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE2) has been fused to a green fluorescent protein reporter. RNA was extracted from green fluorescent protein-tagged cells, released from abscising floral organs, and used to generate a complementary DNA library. This library was used to probe a microarray, and a population of abscission-related transcripts was studied in detail. Seven novel abscission-related genes were identified, four of which encode proteins of unknown function. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and promoter fusions to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene confirmed the expression of these genes in the abscission zone and revealed other places of expression during seedling development. Three of these genes were studied further by crossing reporter lines to the abscissionmutants inflorescence deficient in abscission (ida) and blade-on-petiole1 (bop1)/bop2 and an IDA-overexpressing line. Phenotypic analysis of an At3g14380 transfer DNA insertion line indicates that this gene plays a functional role in floral organ shedding. This strategy has enabled us to uncover new genes involved in abscission, and their possible contribution to the process is discussed. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Sua-Iam G.,Phranakhon Rajabhat University | Makul N.,Phranakhon Rajabhat University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Bagasse ash is an abundantly available combustion by-product in the sugarcane industry. We examined the effect of adding limestone powder to self-compacting concrete mixtures in which large amounts of bagasse ash were employed as a fine aggregate replacement. A Type 1 Portland cement content of 550 kg/m3 was maintained in all of the mixtures. The fine aggregate was replaced with 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% bagasse ash and limestone powder by volume. Mixtures were designed to yield a slump flow diameter of 70 ± 2.5 cm. The workability (slump flow, T50cm slump flow time, V-funnel flow time, and J-ring flow) and hardened properties (ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength) of each mixture were measured, and blocking assessments were performed. The volumetric percentage replacement of 20% limestone powder in fine aggregate incorporating 20% bagasse ash effectively enhanced the workability and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete. Source

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