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Carlsbad, CA, United States

Huang Y.-Y.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Huang Y.-Y.,Harvard University | Huang Y.-Y.,Guangxi Medical University | Nagata K.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biophotonics | Year: 2014

Excitotoxicity describes a pathogenic process whereby death of neurons releases large amounts of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which then proceeds to activate a set of glutamatergic receptors on neighboring neurons (glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and kainate), opening ion channels leading to an influx of calcium ions producing mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Excitotoxicity contributes to brain damage after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases, and is also involved in spinal cord injury. We tested whether low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) at 810 nm could protect primary murine cultured cortical neurons against excitotoxicity in vitro produced by addition of glutamate, NMDA or kainate. Although the prevention of cell death was modest but significant, LLLT (3 J/cm2 delivered at 25 mW/cm2 over 2 min) gave highly significant benefits in increasing ATP, raising mitochondrial membrane potential, reducing intracellular calcium concentrations, reducing oxidative stress and reducing nitric oxide. The action of LLLT in abrogating excitotoxicity may play a role in explaining its beneficial effects in diverse central nervous system pathologies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Hashmi J.T.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Huang Y.-Y.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Huang Y.-Y.,Harvard University | Huang Y.-Y.,Guangxi Medical University | And 8 more authors.
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine | Year: 2010

Background and Objective: Low level light (or laser) therapy (LLLT) is a rapidly growing modality used in physical therapy, chiropractic, sports medicine and increasingly in mainstream medicine. LLLT is used to increase wound healing and tissue regeneration, to relieve pain and inflammation, to prevent tissue death, to mitigate degeneration in many neurological indications. While some agreement has emerged on the best wavelengths of light and a range of acceptable dosages to be used (irradiance and fluence), there is no agreement on whether continuous wave or pulsed light is best and on what factors govern the pulse parameters to be chosen. Study Design/Materials and Methods: The published peer-reviewed literature was reviewed between 1970 and 2010. Results: The basic molecular and cellular mechanisms of LLLT are discussed. The type of pulsed light sources available and the parameters that govern their pulse structure are outlined. Studies that have compared continuous wave and pulsed light in both animals and patients are reviewed. Frequencies used in other pulsed modalities used in physical therapy and biomedicine are compared to those used in LLLT. Conclusion: There is some evidence that pulsed light does have effects that are different from those of continuous wave light. However further work is needed to define these effects for different disease conditions and pulse structures. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

An apparatus and method for indicating treatment site locations for phototherapy to the brain are disclosed. In some embodiments, the apparatus is a headpiece wearable by a patient. The headpiece includes a body adapted to be worn over at least a portion of the patients scalp and a plurality of position indicators corresponding to a plurality of treatment site locations at the patients scalp where a light source is to be sequentially positioned such that light from the light source is sequentially applied to irradiate at least a portion of the patients brain. At least one of the position indicators includes an optically transmissive portion having an area of at least 1 cm

Methods of altering the rate of axonal transport are provided in several embodiments. Some embodiments alter axonal transport in a patient in need of an enhancement of axonal transport to alleviate symptoms of a disease or injury. The methods further include delivering electromagnetic radiation to at least one portion of the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nervous system of a patient sufficient to effect an alteration in axonal transport in the patient.

Methods of enhancing stem cell therapy through the administration of low level light energy are provided in several embodiments. Some embodiments comprise irradiating stem cells before or after implantation at a target tissue having loss of function due to damage or disease, with a resultant increase in the efficacy of the cell therapy. In some embodiments, light energy enhances one or more of the viability, proliferation, migration or engraftment of the stem cells, thereby enhancing the therapeutic effects of the irradiated cells during cell therapy.

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