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El-Sherif A.F.,Central College | El-Sherif A.F.,Laser Photonics Research Group | Talaat M.,Military Technical Institute
Optics and Laser Technology

We report an active Q-switching with different coded schemes generated in the high power diode end pumped Nd:YVO4 laser (DEPSS) using two different techniques of special combination of optical choppers and acousto-optic modulator (AOM) at higher repetition rates of 100 kHz for the first time to the best of our knowledge in any practical laser target designation (LTD) systems. The highest peak power of 95.4 kW with the lowest pulse repetition frequency of 222 Hz and pulse width of 46 ns at FWHM with the pulse-to-pulse stability of ∼95% was measured at certain regime of operation. Special modulation and coding of high stable, high peak power Nd:YVO4 laser pulses at 1064 nm using the combination of different optical chopper blades were achieved. A high peak power of more than 4.84 kW with the shortest pulse width of 25 ns at FWHM has been obtained using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) as an active Q-switched. The pulse-to-pulse stability was measured and improved to be ∼97% at high repetition rate ranges from 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The correlation between the coded laser irradiation (transmitted) and the scattered (received) laser signals for three different targets materials of sand, wood and metal using this laser designation system are examined and discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

El-Sherif A.F.,Central College | El-Sherif A.F.,Laser Photonics Research Group | Talaat M.M.,Military Technical Institute
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

Diode end-pumped solid-state lasers have the potential to yield high quality laser beams with high efficiency for laser range finding and warning receiver applications as well as day and night military laser designation systems. This paper presents theoretical calculations using Advanced Dynamics Professional LASCAD software and experimental studies for a high power pigtailed fiber diode laser module of 8 W operating at 808 nm with a specially designed high efficiency cooling system, end pumped high-efficiency Nd:YVO4 laser of 3x3x10 mm rod and overall cavity length of 44 mm. An optical to optical slope efficiency of around 76%, the final conversion efficiency of 60% and a maximum average output power of 4.11 W at 1064 nm laser were investigated with a high single-mode beam quality factor M2 of < 1.1, and the lowest threshold pumping power of 800 mW was measured, which was in agreement with the theoretical calculations of 776 mW. A high power second harmonic Nd:YVO 4 CW laser at 532 nm (green laser) was achieved with an optical to optical slope efficiency of 66% and a final conversion efficiency of 56% using a 5x5x8 mm KTP crystal placed intracavity of the same 1064 nm CW laser with water cooling system. The green laser average output power of 3.38 W at incident diode laser power of 6 W was measured. To the best of our knowledge a self Q-switching effects was generated in Nd:YVO4 laser by changing the cavity dimensions and the position of the intracavity KTP crystal at certain regime of operation for the first time, in which the cavity length is reduced to be 30 mm and the distance between Nd:YVO4 rod and KTP crystal is only 1mm. Self Qswitched laser pulse at 532 nm with high peak power of 96 W, pulse width of 88 ns at FWHM and repetition rate of 400 kHz was achieved. Experimental studies of a passive Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser using Cr:YAG crystal with three different transmissions of 30%, 40% and 70% were investigated. Passive Q-switched laser pulse at 1064 nm and narrow line width of less than 1.5 nm with highest peak power of nearly 18 kW, short pulse width of less than 4 ns at FWHM and higher repetition rate of 45 kHz using Cr:YAG with transmission of 30% was achieved for the first time. The main application for the investigated effect is generation of an efficient and high repetitive high peak power self Q-switched second harmonic Nd:YVO4 laser system that can be realized without the need of using any of passive Q-switched semiconductor saturable absorber mirror SESAM. © 2013 Copyright SPIE. Source

El-Sharkawy Y.H.,MTC | El Sherif A.F.,Laser Photonics Research Group
Optics and Laser Technology

We have investigated the mechanical and acoustic properties of human teeth using the laser generation of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technique. The materials investigated included normal and decayed teeth, which have similar grain sizes and different thicknesses. The tissue responds to the laser-induced stress by thermoelastic expansion. The informative features of this method allow one to determine sample thermal, optical, and acoustical properties that depend on the peculiarities of the sample compositional structure. An interferometric detection experimental scheme is applied for detection generated SAW pulses. The surface displacement curves shape of normal and decayed human teeth are shown. The dispersion curves for SAW pulses were determined by Fourier analysis. The result is an almost linear dependence of SAW velocity on frequency for a normal tooth, the magnitude of the thermoelastic expansion of the normal tooth reaches its peak at 0.344 μs, a SAW phase velocity of 2500 ms -1 between 0.0008 and 5 MHz was determined. For abnormal teeth, the magnitude of thermoelastic expansion of the normal tooth reaches its peak at 1.3 μs, the measured velocity was 3225 ms -1. Due to the inhomogeneity of abnormal teeth perpendicular to the propagation direction, strong differences in their dispersion curves were obtained. The detection of acoustic waves is the basis of photoacoustic methods, which can be used for diagnostic purposes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

El-Sherif A.F.,Laser Photonics Research Group | Harfosh A.,Military Technical Research Institute
Journal of Modern Optics

A diode-pumped acousto-optic Q-switching Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped high-power fiber laser is reported, laser output average power in excess of 1.65 W was achieved for Q-switching at relatively high repetition rates from 10 to 100 kHz. The shortest pulse duration obtained was 10 ns, giving a highest peak power of 9.8 kW and 98 J energy per pulse, this is the highest power yet reported from any type of actively Q-switched flower double-clad Er3+:Yb3+ fiber laser operating in low order mode at 1550 nm. The pulse train with high pulse-to-pulse stability of 95% occurred at a range of repetition rates up to 100 kHz with peak power of 0.4 kW, 40 ns pulse width and 16 J energy per pulse at 1550 nm for a launched pump power of 5 W. With the mechanical modulation Q-switching of the Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped fiber laser, it was found that the narrowest pulse width of 35 ns was obtained with peak power of 15.5 kW and energy per pulse 0.5 mJ at pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz. A moderate pulse-to-pulse stability of 75% occurred over a range of high repetition rates. A comparison between mechanical modulation and acousto-optic Q-switching has been made at a repetition rate of 20 kHz. The energy per pulse, pulse width, and the average power of a mechanical optical Q-switching laser were greater than for the acousto-optic Q-switching, but the pulse width is narrower and so the high peak power of an acousto-optic Q-switching pulse is greater than for the mechanical (optical) Q-switching laser at repetition rates of up to 100 kHz. © 2015 © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

El-Sherif A.F.,Laser Photonics Research Group | Gomaa W.,Laser Photonics Research Group | El-Sharkawy Y.H.,Egyptian Armed Forces
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE

The light interaction with tissue is governed by the specific wavelength of the laser used and the optical properties of target tissue. Absorption, scattering and fluorescence together can probably be used as the basis of quantitative diagnostic methods for teeth caries. The absorption coefficient of human teeth was determined from detached wet teeth (incisors and premolars). Laser absorption of these teeth was measured using compact blue laser source at wavelength of 457 nm and a high resolution spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The average absorption coefficient of abnormal caries tissue of human teeth is observed to be higher than the normal ones. Detection and diagnosis of caries tissues were monitored by high resolution translational scanning of human teeth. We have a powerful tool to diagnosis a caries region of human teeth using blue laser at 457 nm. Ablations of caries region are investigated using higher power of blue laser at 457 nm. Source

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