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Stabile R.,TU Eindhoven | Rohit A.,PhotonIC Corporation | Williams K.A.,TU Eindhoven
Journal of Lightwave Technology

The first monolithically integrated InGaAsP/InP active-passive 8 × 8 cross-connect is designed, fabricated and demonstrated. The selection functionalities in the space and wavelength domain are implemented simultaneously on a single chip. Eight broadband inputs connect to an array of 1 × 8 broadband space selection switches. Wavelength domain selection is subsequently performed with an array of eight 8 × 8 gated cyclic routers. The on-chip fan-outs and fan-ins allow the integration of 136 semiconductor optical amplifier gates and eight cyclic routers within a chip area of 14.6 × 6.7 mm2. Circuit connectivity is evaluated for the full range of paths with optical and electronic connections for 84% of the paths in this first prototype. Good spectral uniformity for the cyclic routers and loss compensation from the semiconductor optical amplifier gates allow for operation across a broad spectral range. Data routing studies are performed for a representative range of paths to show optical signal to noise ratios of greater than 30 dB/0.1 nm. Dynamically reconfigurable routing is also demonstrated for four simultaneously routed wavelengths. Switch rise and fall times are measured to be 3.8 and 3.2 ns respectively. © 1983-2012 IEEE. Source

Li Q.,Columbia University | Li Q.,PhotonIC Corporation | Rumley S.,Columbia University | Glick M.,APIC Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Optical Communications and Networking

In this work scaling of an optical broadcast-and-select network based on a passive star coupler is explored for avionics applications. Each client in the network is equipped with a transmitter unit and a multichannel receiver capable of receiving signals from all other clients connected to the star coupler. We propose a connecting node concept to scale the number of clients supported by the architecture. These connecting nodes act as bridges between star couplers, enabling the organization of several star couplers into a topology with additional clients. This design is modeled in the PhoenixSim simulation environment, and system-level simulation results are reported. We then propose the ring topology and dimension-N topology to interconnect and scale star couplers. Finally we compare the ring and dimension-N topologies in terms of scalability limit at different crossing traffic loads, revealing the trade-offs between latency, system complexity, and scalability. Our study shows that a robust, low-latency network of up to hundreds of clients, sufficient for current and next-generation avionics applications, can be built using off-the-shelf and near-term commercial technology. © 2013 OSA. Source

Tsuchizawa T.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Yamada K.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Watanabe T.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Park S.,PhotonIC Corporation | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

This paper presents our recent progress with the integration of silicon (Si) photonic devices for optical telecommunications. To integrate Si wire waveguides, germanium (Ge) photodetectors (PDs) and silica waveguides, we have developed processes for the selective epitaxial growth of Ge on a Si waveguide core and for the low-temperature deposition of silica waveguide film and introduced spot size converters (SSCs) for coupling Si-wire and silica waveguide with low loss. Using these processes and SSCs, we have managed to monolithically integrate Si variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and Ge PDs, and Si VOAs and a silica arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). In the integrated VOA-PD, the Ge PD accurately detects the attenuation of light power in the Si VOA. The 3-dB cutoff frequency in VOA-PD synchronous operation is around 100MHz, which is limited by the VOA. The integrated VOA-AWG provides high-speed power-level adjustment independently in every channel of the AWG with a response time of 15ns. These integrated Si photonics devices exhibit sufficient performance for application to future telecommunications systems that combine WDM and burst-mode packets. © 2006 IEEE. Source

Brovelli S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Brovelli S.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Chiodini N.,University of Milan Bicocca | Lorenzi R.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications

The development of integrated photonics and lab-on-a-chip platforms for environmental and biomedical diagnostics demands ultraviolet electroluminescent materials with high mechanical, chemical and environmental stability and almost complete compatibility with existing silicon technology. Here we report the realization of fully inorganic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes emitting at 390 nm with a maximum external quantum efficiency of ∼0.3%, based on SnO 2 nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 thin films obtained from a solution-processed method. The fabrication involves a single deposition step onto a silicon wafer followed by a thermal treatment in a controlled atmosphere. The fully inorganic architecture ensures superior mechanical robustness and optimal chemical stability in organic solvents and aqueous solutions. The versatility of the fabrication process broadens the possibility of optimizing this strategy and extending it to other nanostructured systems for designed applications, such as active components of wearable health monitors or biomedical devices. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Dutt B.,APIC Corporation | Dutt B.,PhotonIC Corporation | Sukhdeo D.S.,APIC Corporation | Sukhdeo D.S.,Stanford University | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Photonics Journal

We provide a theoretical analysis of the relative merits of tensile strain and n-type doping as approaches to realizing an efficient low-power germanium laser. Ultimately, tensile strain offers threshold reductions of over 200x, and significant improvements in slope efficiency compared with the recently demonstrated 0.25% strained electrically pumped germanium laser. In contrast, doping offers fundamentally limited benefits, and too much doping is harmful. Moreover, we predict that tensile strain reduces the optimal doping value and that experimentally demonstrated doping has already reached its fundamental limit. We therefore theoretically show large ( > 1%) tensile strain to be the most viable path to a practical germanium-on-silicon laser. © 2012 IEEE. Source

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