PhotonIC Corporation

Federal Way, CA, United States

PhotonIC Corporation

Federal Way, CA, United States
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Tsuchizawa T.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Yamada K.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Watanabe T.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Park S.,PhotonIC Corporation | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2011

This paper presents our recent progress with the integration of silicon (Si) photonic devices for optical telecommunications. To integrate Si wire waveguides, germanium (Ge) photodetectors (PDs) and silica waveguides, we have developed processes for the selective epitaxial growth of Ge on a Si waveguide core and for the low-temperature deposition of silica waveguide film and introduced spot size converters (SSCs) for coupling Si-wire and silica waveguide with low loss. Using these processes and SSCs, we have managed to monolithically integrate Si variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and Ge PDs, and Si VOAs and a silica arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). In the integrated VOA-PD, the Ge PD accurately detects the attenuation of light power in the Si VOA. The 3-dB cutoff frequency in VOA-PD synchronous operation is around 100MHz, which is limited by the VOA. The integrated VOA-AWG provides high-speed power-level adjustment independently in every channel of the AWG with a response time of 15ns. These integrated Si photonics devices exhibit sufficient performance for application to future telecommunications systems that combine WDM and burst-mode packets. © 2006 IEEE.

Li Q.,Columbia University | Li Q.,PhotonIC Corporation | Rumley S.,Columbia University | Glick M.,APIC Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Optical Communications and Networking | Year: 2013

In this work scaling of an optical broadcast-and-select network based on a passive star coupler is explored for avionics applications. Each client in the network is equipped with a transmitter unit and a multichannel receiver capable of receiving signals from all other clients connected to the star coupler. We propose a connecting node concept to scale the number of clients supported by the architecture. These connecting nodes act as bridges between star couplers, enabling the organization of several star couplers into a topology with additional clients. This design is modeled in the PhoenixSim simulation environment, and system-level simulation results are reported. We then propose the ring topology and dimension-N topology to interconnect and scale star couplers. Finally we compare the ring and dimension-N topologies in terms of scalability limit at different crossing traffic loads, revealing the trade-offs between latency, system complexity, and scalability. Our study shows that a robust, low-latency network of up to hundreds of clients, sufficient for current and next-generation avionics applications, can be built using off-the-shelf and near-term commercial technology. © 2013 OSA.

Dutt B.,APIC Corporation | Dutt B.,PhotonIC Corporation | Sukhdeo D.S.,APIC Corporation | Sukhdeo D.S.,Stanford University | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Photonics Journal | Year: 2012

We provide a theoretical analysis of the relative merits of tensile strain and n-type doping as approaches to realizing an efficient low-power germanium laser. Ultimately, tensile strain offers threshold reductions of over 200x, and significant improvements in slope efficiency compared with the recently demonstrated 0.25% strained electrically pumped germanium laser. In contrast, doping offers fundamentally limited benefits, and too much doping is harmful. Moreover, we predict that tensile strain reduces the optimal doping value and that experimentally demonstrated doping has already reached its fundamental limit. We therefore theoretically show large ( > 1%) tensile strain to be the most viable path to a practical germanium-on-silicon laser. © 2012 IEEE.

Moresco M.,PhotonIC Corporation | Moresco M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Romagnoli M.,PhotonIC Corporation | Romagnoli M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 8 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2013

A new method for measuring waveguide propagation loss in silicon nanowires is presented. This method, based on the interplay between traveling ring modes and standing wave modes due to back-scattering from edge roughess, is accurate and can be used for on wafer measurement of test structures. Examples of loss measurements and fitting are reported. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Dutt B.,APIC Corporation | Dutt B.,PhotonIC Corporation | Lin H.,PhotonIC Corporation | Sukhdeo D.S.,Stanford University | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

In this paper, a theoretical analysis of unstrained GeSn alloys as a laser gain medium was performed. Using the empirical pseudopotential method, the band structure of GeSn alloys was simulated and verified against experimental data. This model shows that GeSn becomes direct bandgap with 6.55% Sn concentration. The optical gain of GeSn alloys with 0-10% Sn concentration was calculated with different n-type doping concentrations and injection levels. It is shown theoretically that adding Sn greatly increases the differential gain owing to the reduction of energy between the direct and indirect conduction bands. For a double-heterostructure laser, the model shows that at a cavity loss of 50 cm-1, the minimum threshold current density drops 60 times from Ge to Ge0.9 Sn0.1, and the corresponding optimum n-doping concentration of the active layer drops by almost two orders of magnitude. These results indicate that GeSn alloys are good candidates for a Si-compatible laser. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

Lee S.Y.,Boston University | Forestiere C.,Boston University | Pasquale A.J.,Boston University | Trevino J.,Boston University | And 5 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We experimentally demonstrate angle-insensitive (i.e., isotropic) coloration of nanostructured metal surfaces by engineered light scattering from homogenized Pinwheel aperiodic arrays of gold nanoparticles deposited on gold substrates. In sharp contrast to the colorimetric responses of periodically nanopatterned surfaces, which strongly depend on the observation angle, Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays give rise to intense and isotropic structural coloration enhanced by plasmonic resonance. Pinwheel nanoparticle arrays with isotropic Fourier space were fabricated on a gold thin film and investigated using dark-field scattering and angle-resolved reflectivity measurements. Isotropic green coloration of metal films was demonstrated on Pinwheel patterns, with greatly reduced angular sensitivity and enhanced spatial uniformity of coloration compared to both periodic and random arrays. These findings, which are supported by coupled-dipole numerical simulations of differential scattering cross sections and radiation diagrams, could advance plasmonic applications to display, optical tagging and colorimetric sensing technologies. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Midrio M.,University of Udine | Boscolo S.,University of Udine | Moresco M.,PhotonIC Corporation | Moresco M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Graphene's conductivity at optical frequencies can be varied upon injection of carriers. In the present paper, this effect is used to modulate losses of an optical wave traveling inside a ring cavity. This way an optical modulator based on the critical-coupling concept first introduced by Yariv can be realized. Through numerical simulations, we show that a modulator featuring a bandwidth as large as 100 GHz can be designed with switching energy in the order of few fJ per bit. Also, we show that operations with driving voltages below 1.2 volt could be obtained, thus making the proposed modulator compatible with requirements of low-voltage CMOS technology. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Stabile R.,TU Eindhoven | Rohit A.,PhotonIC Corporation | Williams K.A.,TU Eindhoven
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2014

The first monolithically integrated InGaAsP/InP active-passive 8 × 8 cross-connect is designed, fabricated and demonstrated. The selection functionalities in the space and wavelength domain are implemented simultaneously on a single chip. Eight broadband inputs connect to an array of 1 × 8 broadband space selection switches. Wavelength domain selection is subsequently performed with an array of eight 8 × 8 gated cyclic routers. The on-chip fan-outs and fan-ins allow the integration of 136 semiconductor optical amplifier gates and eight cyclic routers within a chip area of 14.6 × 6.7 mm2. Circuit connectivity is evaluated for the full range of paths with optical and electronic connections for 84% of the paths in this first prototype. Good spectral uniformity for the cyclic routers and loss compensation from the semiconductor optical amplifier gates allow for operation across a broad spectral range. Data routing studies are performed for a representative range of paths to show optical signal to noise ratios of greater than 30 dB/0.1 nm. Dynamically reconfigurable routing is also demonstrated for four simultaneously routed wavelengths. Switch rise and fall times are measured to be 3.8 and 3.2 ns respectively. © 1983-2012 IEEE.

Camacho-Aguilera R.E.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Cai Y.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Patel N.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Bessette J.T.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2012

Electrically pumped lasing from Germanium-on-Silicon pnn heterojunction diode structures is demonstrated. Room temperature multimode laser with 1mW output power is measured. Phosphorous doping in Germanium at a concentration over 4×1019cm-3 is achieved. A Germanium gain spectrum of nearly 200nm is observed. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Brovelli S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Brovelli S.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Chiodini N.,University of Milan Bicocca | Lorenzi R.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

The development of integrated photonics and lab-on-a-chip platforms for environmental and biomedical diagnostics demands ultraviolet electroluminescent materials with high mechanical, chemical and environmental stability and almost complete compatibility with existing silicon technology. Here we report the realization of fully inorganic ultraviolet light-emitting diodes emitting at 390 nm with a maximum external quantum efficiency of ∼0.3%, based on SnO 2 nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 thin films obtained from a solution-processed method. The fabrication involves a single deposition step onto a silicon wafer followed by a thermal treatment in a controlled atmosphere. The fully inorganic architecture ensures superior mechanical robustness and optimal chemical stability in organic solvents and aqueous solutions. The versatility of the fabrication process broadens the possibility of optimizing this strategy and extending it to other nanostructured systems for designed applications, such as active components of wearable health monitors or biomedical devices. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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