Abingdon Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
Abingdon Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

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Mondal B.,University of Strathclyde | Wilkes R.D.,PhosphonicS Ltd | Percy J.M.,University of Strathclyde | Tuttle T.,University of Strathclyde | And 2 more authors.
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

Dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) has been applied to understand the performance of several palladium metal scavengers. Nine different sulfur-based ligands and three different palladium metal sets have been investigated in detail. Based on a thorough analysis of the thermodynamic binding parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS, we have identified the best binding modes for all scavenger ligands. Bis-monodentate coordination is favoured over chelation in ΔH and ΔG values for most of the scavenger ligands. Special attention has been paid to the ligand strain energies, which account for the structural changes of the ligands upon complexation indicating that small (5-membered) chelates are considerably less favourable than expected. Some ligands can use their longest chain (>7-atoms) to yield trans chelates, which ligands with shorter chains (≤6-atoms) are unable to form. A secondary amino nitrogen (RR′NH) is found to be the best donor with highest binding enthalpy for Pd(ii) metal systems. In terms of the strength of the initial binding interactions, -SMe > -SH; capping thiols (-SH) as thioethers (-SMe) is therefore suggested to be an effective strategy in scavenger design. These observations mark the beginning of a knowledge base of the full range of possible interactions, leading to the construction of a sulfur ligand database for the design of scavenger systems. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Astles D.,PhosphonicS Ltd.
Hydrocarbon Engineering | Year: 2011

PhosphonicS has developed economic processes to use metal scavengers in applications across a range of large scale industrial problems, providing a more effective way to recover trace metals from solution. The company's precious metal scavengers are based on an inorganic silica framework, which provides high thermal, chemical and physical stability. PhosphonicS' materials are initially tested against a sample of the target metal containing stream at laboratory scale using a batch treatment or small scale column. Following successful laboratory and field trials, a full scale process was designed with the client using an existing plant unit, with only minor CAPEX required. The benefits of using the PhosphonicS metal scavenging approach to precious metal recovery are that it offers economic process option to treat lower concentration PGM streams.


Guo H.-L.,Guiyang Medical University | Zhang S.,Guiyang Medical University | Liu L.-Y.,Guizhou Province Center for Disease Control | Xu Y.-J.,PhosphonicS Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs | Year: 2015

Objective: To establish microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the determination of 13 kinds of metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ba, Al, Co, Cr, and Ni) in 10 kinds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) injections which are Carthamin yellow for injection, Breviscapine for injection, Urokinase for injection, Lugua Polypeptide for injection, Xuesetong for injection, Shuanghuanglian for injection, Tanreqing Injection, Salvia miltiorrhiza Injection, Yinxing Damo Injection, and Danhong Injection). Methods: HNO3 and H2O2 are as acid digestion system; Samples were conducted pretreatment by microwave digestion instrument; Sc, In, Rh, and Re were used as internal standard elements, 13 kinds of elements were determined by ICP-MS at the same time. Results: Different kinds of the elements had a good linear relationship (r>0.999); The limit of detection was range from 0.008 to 0.069 μg/L, the average recovery rate was range from 93.61% to 100.79%; RSD values of the repeatability and precision were all less than 5%, The As and Cd in 10 kinds of CMM injections were all less than the limit of detection, Pb was ranged from 0.109 to 0.017 mg/kg, Cu was ranged from 0.016 to 0.135 mg/kg, Hg was ranged from 0.005 to 0.018 mg/kg, Fe was ranged from 0.335 to 2.081 mg/kg, Mn was ranged from 0.021 to 0.699 mg/kg, Ba was ranged from 0.009 to 0.028 mg/kg, Zn was ranged from 0.005 to 3.186 mg/kg, Al was ranged from 0.518 to 10.012 mg/kg, Co was ranged from 0.003 to 0.028 mg/kg, Cr was ranged from 0.006 to 0.179 mg/kg, Ni was ranged 0.005 to 1.187 mg/kg, five kinds of heavy metals which were needed to control were safe according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010), the contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Al were not too high, but their safe limits were needed to be further in-depth researched and analyzed. Conclusion: This method is simple and fast, and has good accuracy and high precision, so it can be recommended for the determination of metal elements in CMM injections and provide the reference for its quality control. © 2015, Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All right reserved.


Guo H.-L.,Guiyang Medical College | North C.,PhosphonicS Ltd. | Liu L.-Y.,Guizhou Province Center for Disease Control | He H.,Guiyang Medical College | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs | Year: 2015

Objective: To establish a new method for removal of heavy metals pollution in Chinese materia medica extracts (CMME) with new kinds of solid scavenging technology. Methods: 0.5% Ethanol aqueous solution was added into the Ganoderma lucidum extract to dissolve it, making the 10 mol/kg of scavenger into the sample solution, stirring for 15 h in ambient temperature, then the concentration of five kinds of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cu) was determined by ICP-MS and the G. lucidum polysaccharide was detected by Phenol-sulfuric acid method in the extract with or without treatment. Results: The concentrations of five kinds of heavy metals decreased significantly after the treatment of scavenging, average removing percentages of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cu were respectively 73.79%, 74.28%, 57.73%, 76.55%, and 85.39%, removing percentage of the total heavy metals was 81.68%, which was up to the standard in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The content of G. lucidum polysaccharide kept almost the same after the treatment by the new solid technology. Conclusion: The removal effect of heavy metals in extract by new scavenger is significant and the content of CMME is not affected. The method can be used to deal with G. lucidum extract if the heavy metals are exceed over the standard. © 2015, Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All right reserved.


Reginato G.,Astrazeneca | Sadler P.,Astrazeneca | Wilkes R.D.,PhosphonicS Ltd.
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2011

Functionalised silicas, used for selectively removing metal impurities in process streams, are packed in cartridges and inserted into multicartridge filters. The scavenging step that follows a catalytic reaction involves the single pass of the process stream through the multicartridge filter setup at a predetermined linear velocity and temperature. Efficiency in metal reduction as high as 98% has been so far achieved at tens of kilograms scale. Furthermore, the precious metal anchored onto the scavengers functionalities can be recovered and refined. Our chronological development of a versatile, general, and easily scalable format for metal scavenging at process scales is described, illustrated by application in real time to a range of projects passing through our Pharmaceutical Pilot Plant, employing a variety of metals (palladium, rhodium, iridium). Benefits of the cartridge format in terms of economics and environmental impact are also initially assessed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Recho J.,PhosphonicS Ltd. | Black R.J.G.,PhosphonicS Ltd. | North C.,PhosphonicS Ltd. | Ward J.E.,PhosphonicS Ltd. | Wilkes R.D.,PhosphonicS Ltd.
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2014

The influence of four parameters (temperature, scavenging time, amount of scavenger, and concentration of palladium in the solution) on the efficiency of Pd removal from a cross-coupling reaction, using a commercially available Pd scavenger, SPM32, was studied. The DoE-based method employed yielded more information than is readily attainable from standard adsorption isotherms and kinetics experiments. The optimal regime of scavenging was identified; intuitive and nonintuitive effects of temperature, scavenging time, and scavenger amounts were highlighted; and a mathematical model quantifying predicted Pd removal from the synthetic intermediate was built. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 423.79K | Year: 2015

Platinum group metals (PGMs) are widely used as catalysts in the production of chemicals that enhance quality of life: pharmaceutical & cosmetic products, coatings, energy-efficient lubricants, adhesives, food cling wraps and phthalate-free plasticisers, to name just a few examples. However, the UK has no viable reserves of PGMS, so it is critical that we recover the metals both for their value (for example, rhodium, Rh, to be recovered in this project, sells for >$1100 per troy ounce!) and to ensure materials security. Total Recovery of All Platinum group metals (TRAP) is a project focussed on developing a technology package integrating both new materials and low-energy engineering processes using membranes to capture Rh from waste streams in production of large volume chemicals. To achieve this, a UK SME with expertise in metals capture, Phosphonics, will work with academic partners at the University of Bath and a large waste management company, Veolia. Recovery of metals like Rh will recover value from waste, enhance the UKs movement towards the circular economy and ensure that we can continue to manufacture the products that we need, while reducing global C-footprint.


The invention relates both to processes for the production of functionalised materials containing alkyl sulfonic acids groups and their use as heterogeneous catalysts. The invention also relates to precursors of these new products and new organopolysiloxane sulfonic acids.


A process for the selective removal of a component from a liquid phase and subsequently returning the component to a liquid phase is disclosed. A novel compound of formula (I) [SUP]-[[L]-[G]]a (I) in which L is a linking group, G is an aryl group having a leaving group LG selected from Cl, Br, I, sulfonate such as triflate, a diazo group, a nitrile, an ester and an alkoxy group and substituent Q is selected from H, NR2, OR, C02R, F, Cl, N02 CN and SUP is a support having a plurality of groups -[L]-[G] bound to the support is contacted with the liquid phase to bind the component to the compound I thereby forming a captured component which is separated from and may be returned to the liquid phase. The compound I is especially useful in binding homogeneous catalysts to remove it from a reaction medium and selectively returning the catalyst to the reaction medium at a later stage. The compound is particularly useful for cross-coupling reactions, for example in Suzuki reactions.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Collaborative Research & Development | Award Amount: 257.41K | Year: 2013

Chemical processes catalysed with Palladium (Pd) compounds, and based on Nobel-prize winning methods, have become essential for the production of life-enhancing pharmaceuticals & chemicals. These processes underpin global manufacturing worth more than £10billion each year for pharmaceuticals alone. However, the components of the Pd-catalyst must be recovered from the reaction products through further expensive and energy-intensive processing. This project will develop a new Catch & Release technology which can catch the catalyst whilst reaction products are removed, and then release it in a fully-functional active form to catalyse the next reaction. New reaction components are introduced allowing another production cycle to begin. This novel semi-continuous process will be applied initially in the pharmaceutical & agrochemical industries and then developed for other process industries, such as the emerging plastic electronics sector.

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