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Schaefer R.,Phoenix Science And Technology, Inc. | Claudi R.,RNT Consulting | Grapperhaus M.,Phoenix Science And Technology, Inc.
Journal / American Water Works Association | Year: 2010

Field tests of a sparker system demonstrated control of zebra mussels in an intake pipe. The sparker was implemented in a wet well near the exit of an intake pipe at a Georgia-Pacific plant on Lake Champlain, N.Y. and was tested during the summer of 2003. The pressure was measured at several locations along the pipe, and zebra mussel samples were placed at those locations. Test results indicated that sparker pressure pulses can eradicate existing adult zebra mussels and prevent the settlement of larval stages. Sparker pressure pulses with peak pressures of at least 0.04 MPa and pressure energies per unit area of 0.16 J/m2 per pulse appeared to prevent the settlement of veligers. Peak pressures of 0.23 MPa and pressure energies per unit area of 5.8 J/m 2 per pulse caused mortality of adult mussels.


Orlowska M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Koutchma T.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Grapperhaus M.,Phoenix Science And Technology, Inc. | Gallagher J.,Phoenix Science And Technology, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

Performance of three innovative high-intensity pulsed (HIP) ultraviolet (UV) sources characterized by different emission spectra, energy per pulse, and frequency (HIP-1: 31 J/pulse, 8 Hz; HIP-2: 344 J/pulse, 0.75 Hz; HIP-3: 644 J/pulse, 0.5 Hz) was evaluated at UV fluence of 5 mJ/cm2 by measuring the effects on quality parameters of 30% (w/v) fructose solution, apple juice and milk. The results were compared with the continuous monochromatic low pressure (LPM) and medium pressure polychromatic (MPM) mercury lamps at the UV fluence of 10 mJ/cm2 that was determined based on 5-log microbial reduction requirement. The effects of HIP-1 and HIP-3 pulsed lamps on color, pH, and vitamin C, were comparable with the LPM lamp. For example, pH of fructose decreased by 1.94% for the LPM lamp and by 0.78% and 4.31% for HIP-1 and HIP-3, respectively. Treatment with the LPM lamp reduced the vitamin C content by 1.30% in apple juice and 35.13% in milk. In the case of pulsed lamps the reduction of vitamin C was 0.85% for HIP-1 and 1.78% for HIP-3 in apple juice, 12.31% (HIP-1) and 21.66% (HIP-3) in milk. HIP-2 and MPM lamps caused the most significant deterioration of the quality parameters in all tested liquids. The HIP-2 lamp decreased vitamin C by 8.52% in apple juice and 35.80% in milk, and also reduced pH of fructose solution by 5.29%. These results indicate that UV treatment with pulsed HIP-1 and HIP-3 sources could represent a promising alternative for the treatment of low UV transparent and opaque liquid foods. © 2012 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by: Horst Donner.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 989.05K | Year: 2012

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the first line treatment for the majority of patients with kidney stones. The gold standard in SWL is still considered to be the Dornier HM3, which was the first lithotripter introduced into the US. The HM3 is an electrohydraulic lithotripter (EHL) that uses a single underwater sparker as a shock wave source. The HM3 has the drawback that the electrodes erode quickly and must be replaced in the middle of a procedure, and causes significant side effects. This project is to develop optimized arrays several sparkers in small ellipsoidal reflectors that last for several procedures and break stones more effectively. The flexibility in placement of the sparkers allows space for an in-line probe to monitor stone location during treatment, which will result in fewer pressure pulses missing the stone and reduce damage to surrounding tissue. The specific project objectives are to optimize sparker arrays, including the use of double pulses by breaking both artificial and actual kidney stones, develop an in-line probe and conduct animal studies to investigate side-effects and to support an IDE. A successful Phase II will lead to the development of a prototype and clinical studies and subsequent commercialization. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research can lead to improved treatment of kidney stones. A successful new lithotripter will have a higher percentage of successes (reducing the number of repeat procedures), less side effects to thepatient and will operate for several procedures without having to replace the sparker (which currently is replaced during each procedure).


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 98.17K | Year: 2010

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the first line treatment for the majority of patients with kidney stones. The gold standard in SWL is still considered to be the Dornier HM3, which was the first lithotripter introduced into the US. The HM3 is an electrohydraulic lithotripter (EHL) that uses a single underwater sparker as a shock wave source. The HM3 has the drawback that the electrodes erode quickly and must be replaced in the middle of a procedure, and causes significant side effects. This project is to demonstrate that an array of several sparkers in small ellipsoidal reflectors can break stones without having to stop a procedure. The relatively low electrical current in each sparker in the array reduces the erosion, which may allow the sparker array to operate for multiple treatments. The flexibility in placement of the sparkers allows space for an in-line ultrasound probe to monitor stone location during treatment, which will result in fewer pressure pulses missing the stone and reduce damage to surrounding tissue. The specific project objectives are to develop a sparker array and demonstrate its efficacy by breaking artificial stones without having to replace electrodes. A successful Phase I will lead to a Phase II to develop a prototype and demonstrate the potential for improved clinical outcomes. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research can lead to improved treatment of kidney stones. A successful new lithotripter will have both a higher percentage of successes (reducing the number of repeat procedures) and less side effects to the patient.

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