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They must not only be easily tailored, they should also accept high cable cross-sectional areas in order to minimize transmission losses. Cable cross-sectional areas up to 16 mm 2 and string voltages up to 1,500 V are not a problem for the new PV plug connectors from the Sunclix program.


DIN VDE 0100-534:2009-02 provides planners, installers, operators and inspectors of surge protection equipment with selection and installation guidelines to increase availability of low-voltage systems in a safe-to-use way. Besides the issues of protection against surge voltages from indirect distant lightning strikes as well as from switching operations in accordance with DIN VDE 0100-443:2007-06 the concerns of the lightning protection equipotential bonding in accordance with DIN EN 62305 have to be considered. Based on selected practical examples from industrial low-voltage switchgear, the proper implementation of the current standard situation is explained. In this connection, the real boundary conditions of complex industrial low-voltage switchgear as well as their integration in the local electrical infrastructure are considered. Often critical issues such as installation sites in line with lightning protection zones; interaction of surge protection devices with existing plant-side overcurrent and residual current protection devices or the need for wiring outgoing circuits with suitable surge protection devices find practical answers.


Wetter M.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Kiefer A.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Zirkel A.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG
VDE Fachberichte | Year: 2011

Lightning protection and surge protection measures are essential for the availability of wind turbines and for their profitability. Whereas the electric and electronic equipment can be protected by a comprehensive surge protection concept, outer structures particularly the rotor blades are hit by direct lightning strikes. In defined maintenance cycles these damages are inspected and repaired in costly operations. In this paper a method for lightning current measurement is presented which enables the operator to measure lightning currents directly and to determine their parameters like amplitude, current rise time and charge. The presented system with three sensor units is originally developed for wind turbines, to adapt maintenance cycle times to the real number of lightning strikes. Further applications in other industries are possible.


The new construction of a multi-level industrial building with laboratory and office space has a structure with rein-forced concrete columns. Due to the peculiarities in the construction progress and other reasons, it was not possible or not advisable to install a meshed network of earth electrodes made of rustproof material underneath the granular sub-base as defined in relevant standards. The contribution describes the chosen alternative measures. In certain parts of the building pre-stressed concrete ceilings are used whose ceiling elements are prefabricated in concrete factories. In contrast to the manufacturing process of story ceilings where the steel reinforcements are accessible and can be connected for the purpose of equipotential bonding and shielding and equipped with external connections, this is not yet possible with pre-stressed concrete ceilings. This contribution describes a procedure which, while maintaining previous industrial manufacturing processes of pre-stressed concrete ceiling elements, allows the subsequent use of the reinforcement pre-stressed at the factory. On the building site, the modified pre-stressed concrete ceiling elements can be built in as usual. The pre-stressed reinforcement made professionally accessible with this new PRESCOBOND procedure can now be used without significant additional effort to create a low impedance equipotential bonding system as part of a lightning protection system in all floors of the building. © VDE Verlag Gmbh · Berlin · Offenbach.


For the most part, automation systems are fed from 24 V DC power supplies. Usually the negative pole of such systems is grounded. From a functional point of view, the reference potential must be grounded in only one place. Practice shows, however, that so far neither individual operating equipment nor overall systems ready for operation are tested measurement-wise for freedom from connections between negative pole and ground before start-up or during operation. Thus multiple groundings of the reference potential cannot be excluded. In case of lightning current loading of such systems, among others, galvanically coupled currents can penetrate these 24 V DC systems without any protective devices recognizing and avoiding it. This is even the case in switched-off state of the system. Unexplainable malfunctions or failures are the result. The same applies to the influences from high-power installations. The use of surge voltage protection devices cannot control the effects of such influences. This paper describes easy procedures on how to adequately plan the grounding of grounded 24 V DC systems to be newly constructed, to construct them and to identify changes in the insulation quality over the entire life cycle of the system within the high demand on the system availability. For existing systems, instructions are given for proper adjustment to the operational requirements. Additional information on surge voltage protection concepts of such 24 V DC supplies across lightning protection zones help to reduce malfunction and insulation breakdowns in case of lightning strikes. In this way incorrect interferences from the grounding system or the potential equalization system that mostly are not visible are minimized and the system availability and security is permanently increased. © VDE Verlag Gmbh · Berlin · Offenbach.


Finis G.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Wetter M.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Durth R.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Depping C.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2016

The "class I and II operating duty tests" according to IEC/EN 61643-11 is an essential test for the qualification of surge protective devices (SPDs) connected to low-voltage power systems (LVPS). To perform this test a setup is required which offers the possibility to stress the SPD with defined surge-current impulses while it is connected to a power supply simulating the characteristic of the real LVPS in which the SPD should operate. In this regard, a new test facility is designed and constructed. One of its feature is a 50 Hz power system (PS) which provides unique fine adjustment possibilities for the test voltage, the short-circuit current and the power factor in a wide range of values. Its technical design and performance are described and discussed in detail. Furthermore, the technical implementation of the required coupling of this PS with a surge-current generator is presented. This addresses technical measures to protect the PS against electrical stress due to partial surge currents which can occur under certain circumstances during the above mentioned test procedure. Finally, test results obtained from lightning current arresters are presented to demonstrate the performance of the test facility. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wetter M.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Kiefer A.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Zirkel A.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG
2011 International Symposium on Lightning Protection, XI SIPDA 2011 | Year: 2011

Lightning protection and surge protection measures are essential for the availability of wind turbines and for their profitability. Whereas the electric and electronic equipment can be protected by a comprehensive surge protection concept, outer structures particularly the rotor blades are hit by direct lightning strikes. In defined maintenance cycles these damages are inspected and repaired in costly operations. In this paper a method for lightning current measurement is presented. It enables the operator to measure lightning currents directly and to determine their parameters like amplitude, current rise time and charge. The presented system with three sensor units is originally developed for wind turbines, to adapt maintenance cycle times to the real number of lightning strikes. Further applications in other industries are possible. © 2011 IEEE.


Finis G.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Wetter M.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Durth R.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Depping C.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG
2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection, ICLP 2014 | Year: 2014

The "class I and II operating duty tests" according to IEC/EN 61643-11, chapter 8.3.4.3 is an essential test for the qualification of surge protective devices (SPDs) connected to lowvoltage power systems (LVPS). To perform this test a setup is required which offers the possibility to stress the SPD with defined surge-current impulses while it is connected to a power supply simulating the characteristic of the real LVPS in which the SPD should operate. In this regard, a new test facility was designed and constructed as a part of a newly built technology center for surge protection. One feature of this test facility is its unique 50 Hz power system (PS) which provides fine adjustment possibilities for the test voltage, the short-circuit current and the power factor in a wide range of values. Its technical design and performance are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the technical implementation of the required coupling of the PS with a surge-current generator is presented. This addresses technical measures to protect the PS against electrical stress due to partial surge currents which can occur under certain circumstances during the above mentioned test procedure. Finally, test results obtained from lightning current arresters based on spark-gap technology are presented to demonstrate the performance of the test facility. © 2014 IEEE.


Wetter M.,PHOENIX CONTACT GmbH and Co. KG | Kern A.,FH Aachen
2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection, ICLP 2014 | Year: 2014

Using a state-of-the-art lightning monitoring system LM-S with lightning detection sensors based on the Faraday effect the lightning currents caused by direct strikes to different buildings can be analyzed. The lightning monitoring system measures different current parameters, e.g. amplitude, charge, specific energy, time of strike. The measured data are compared with the expected number of strikes calculated based mainly on the international standard for risk management IEC 62305-2 Ed.2:2010 [1]. © 2014 IEEE.


Schottel B.,TU Braunschweig | Kopp T.,TU Braunschweig | Schmutz J.-E.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Runge T.,TU Braunschweig | Kurrat M.,TU Braunschweig
2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection, ICLP 2014 | Year: 2014

In this research work, an experimental setup is build up to investigate the behavior of high temperature plasma in a narrow gap under the influence of surge current. The expansion of the plasma is shown at different geometries and current amplitudes up to 23 kA. Images of the plasma propagation are taken with a high speed camera and compared with the plasma voltage to receive an understanding of the fundamental physical process. © 2014 IEEE.

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