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DIN VDE 0100-534:2009-02 provides planners, installers, operators and inspectors of surge protection equipment with selection and installation guidelines to increase availability of low-voltage systems in a safe-to-use way. Besides the issues of protection against surge voltages from indirect distant lightning strikes as well as from switching operations in accordance with DIN VDE 0100-443:2007-06 the concerns of the lightning protection equipotential bonding in accordance with DIN EN 62305 have to be considered. Based on selected practical examples from industrial low-voltage switchgear, the proper implementation of the current standard situation is explained. In this connection, the real boundary conditions of complex industrial low-voltage switchgear as well as their integration in the local electrical infrastructure are considered. Often critical issues such as installation sites in line with lightning protection zones; interaction of surge protection devices with existing plant-side overcurrent and residual current protection devices or the need for wiring outgoing circuits with suitable surge protection devices find practical answers. Source


The new construction of a multi-level industrial building with laboratory and office space has a structure with rein-forced concrete columns. Due to the peculiarities in the construction progress and other reasons, it was not possible or not advisable to install a meshed network of earth electrodes made of rustproof material underneath the granular sub-base as defined in relevant standards. The contribution describes the chosen alternative measures. In certain parts of the building pre-stressed concrete ceilings are used whose ceiling elements are prefabricated in concrete factories. In contrast to the manufacturing process of story ceilings where the steel reinforcements are accessible and can be connected for the purpose of equipotential bonding and shielding and equipped with external connections, this is not yet possible with pre-stressed concrete ceilings. This contribution describes a procedure which, while maintaining previous industrial manufacturing processes of pre-stressed concrete ceiling elements, allows the subsequent use of the reinforcement pre-stressed at the factory. On the building site, the modified pre-stressed concrete ceiling elements can be built in as usual. The pre-stressed reinforcement made professionally accessible with this new PRESCOBOND procedure can now be used without significant additional effort to create a low impedance equipotential bonding system as part of a lightning protection system in all floors of the building. © VDE Verlag Gmbh · Berlin · Offenbach. Source


For the most part, automation systems are fed from 24 V DC power supplies. Usually the negative pole of such systems is grounded. From a functional point of view, the reference potential must be grounded in only one place. Practice shows, however, that so far neither individual operating equipment nor overall systems ready for operation are tested measurement-wise for freedom from connections between negative pole and ground before start-up or during operation. Thus multiple groundings of the reference potential cannot be excluded. In case of lightning current loading of such systems, among others, galvanically coupled currents can penetrate these 24 V DC systems without any protective devices recognizing and avoiding it. This is even the case in switched-off state of the system. Unexplainable malfunctions or failures are the result. The same applies to the influences from high-power installations. The use of surge voltage protection devices cannot control the effects of such influences. This paper describes easy procedures on how to adequately plan the grounding of grounded 24 V DC systems to be newly constructed, to construct them and to identify changes in the insulation quality over the entire life cycle of the system within the high demand on the system availability. For existing systems, instructions are given for proper adjustment to the operational requirements. Additional information on surge voltage protection concepts of such 24 V DC supplies across lightning protection zones help to reduce malfunction and insulation breakdowns in case of lightning strikes. In this way incorrect interferences from the grounding system or the potential equalization system that mostly are not visible are minimized and the system availability and security is permanently increased. © VDE Verlag Gmbh · Berlin · Offenbach. Source


Schottel B.,TU Braunschweig | Kopp T.,TU Braunschweig | Schmutz J.-E.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Runge T.,TU Braunschweig | Kurrat M.,TU Braunschweig
2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection, ICLP 2014 | Year: 2014

In this research work, an experimental setup is build up to investigate the behavior of high temperature plasma in a narrow gap under the influence of surge current. The expansion of the plasma is shown at different geometries and current amplitudes up to 23 kA. Images of the plasma propagation are taken with a high speed camera and compared with the plasma voltage to receive an understanding of the fundamental physical process. © 2014 IEEE. Source


Wetter M.,Phoenix Contact GmbH and Co. KG | Kern A.,FH Aachen
2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection, ICLP 2014 | Year: 2014

Using a state-of-the-art lightning monitoring system LM-S with lightning detection sensors based on the Faraday effect the lightning currents caused by direct strikes to different buildings can be analyzed. The lightning monitoring system measures different current parameters, e.g. amplitude, charge, specific energy, time of strike. The measured data are compared with the expected number of strikes calculated based mainly on the international standard for risk management IEC 62305-2 Ed.2:2010 [1]. © 2014 IEEE. Source

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