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Nakauma M.,San Ei Gen F.F.I. Inc. | Funami T.,San Ei Gen F.F.I. Inc. | Fang Y.,Hubei Engineering University | Nishinari K.,Hubei Engineering University | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2017

Functions of low molecular-weight polyuronate fractions in the calcium binding and calcium-induced gelation of normal low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) were investigated. The fractions from pectin with two different degrees of esterification (DE) and also from alginate with two different mannuronate/guluronate (M/G) ratios were prepared within the weight average molecular-weight range from ca. 40–65 kg/mol. In the mixtures of LMP and each polyuronate fraction, changes in the relative viscosity (ηr) of dilute solutions and in rheological properties of gels were examined in the presence of calcium. Different results were indicated between the pectin and the alginate fractions. The addition of the pectin fractions, regardless of its DE, increased ηr of dilute solutions and increased dynamic storage modulus (G′) of gels with showing greater effects at the lower DE. On the contrary, the addition of the alginate fractions, regardless of its M/G ratio, increased the critical threshold concentration of calcium required for the increase in ηr of dilute solutions and decreased G′ of gels with showing greater effects at the lower M/G ratio (i.e. guluronate rich). Based on the results, molecular associations of the mixtures were presented schematically to compare the functions between the pectin and the alginate fractions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Viebke C.,Glyndwr University | Al-Assaf S.,Glyndwr University | Phillips G.O.,Glyndwr University | Phillips G.O.,Phillips Hydrocolloids Research Ltd.
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre | Year: 2014

This review evaluates the success and failure of the submissions made under article 13.1 to the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) regarding possible health claims related to hydrocolloids. Submissions from various suppliers and end-users covering nine hydrocolloids were made in a number of categories. These highlighted the interest in expanding the use of food hydrocolloids from their traditional applications into more value added products. For a number of years a major stumbling block for many of the hydrocolloids to be utilised and labelled as a fibre ingredient was due to the uncertainty of what was legally constituted as dietary fibre. This was to a great extend resolved in 2009 by the Codex definition of a dietary fibre, which gave regulatory approval for the major commercial important hydrocolloids to be designated as dietary fibres. This unlocked the way to go a step further to obtain more specific health or nutritional claim for specific hydrocolloids or blends. However as this review shows to obtain a positive health claim from a legislative body require further rigorous scientific studies. The studies must relate to the target demographic and measure relevant biomarkers related to the wording of the claim. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Shi Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Phillips G.O.,Glyndwr University | Phillips G.O.,Phillips Hydrocolloids Research Ltd | Yang G.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

Cellulose-based electroconductive composites can be prepared by combining conducting electroactive materials with hydrophilic biocompatible cellulose. Inorganic nanoparticles, such as metal ions and oxides, carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide, conducting polymers, and ionic liquids (through doping, blending or coating) can be introduced into the cellulose matrix. Such composites can form a biocompatible interface for microelectronic devices, and provide a biocompatible matrix or scaffold for electrically stimulated drug release devices, implantable biosensors, and neuronal prostheses. Here the benefits of combining conventional and bacterial cellulose with these electroactive composites are described and future applications are considered. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Funami T.,San Ei Gen F.F.I. Inc. | Nakauma M.,San Ei Gen F.F.I. Inc. | Ishihara S.,San Ei Gen F.F.I. Inc. | Tanaka R.,San Ei Gen F.F.I. Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2011

The emulsifying properties of sugar beet pectin (SBP) were investigated in relation to its molecular structure. SBP has been subjected to an enhancement process, and this material was here compared with conventional non-enhanced SBP. The oil-in-water emulsification properties of both were compared at 1.5% concentration at pH 3.25, using 15% middle-chain triglyceride as the oil phase. Their emulsification behavior after various enzyme treatments decreased in the order: protease > arabinanase/galactanase mixture > polygalacturonase. The enzyme treatment also decreased the molecular weight of SBP. Protease degraded the high molecular weight carbohydrate-protein complex. Arabinanase/galactanase mixture was more effective in decreasing the emulsification performance than polygalacturonase. The results confirm the key role of protein as the anchor for the oil droplets and identify also the contribution of the neutral lateral chains in stabilizing emulsions by forming a hydrated layer. Protein also aggregates, which functions as a linker for the association of the carbohydrate chains consequent to the enhancement process. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Nie S.-P.,Nanchang University | Nie S.-P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wang C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cui S.W.,Nanchang University | And 5 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

Using the more recently available techniques such as methylation-GC-MS, 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D (COSY, TOCSY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR spectral analysis, we have revisited the classical structure of gum arabic (Acacia senegal). Methylation and GC-MS analysis confirmed that gum arabic (A. senegal) is a highly branched polysaccharide with the backbone composed of 1,3-linked galactopyransyl (Galp) residues substituted at O-2, O-6 or O-4 positions. The terminal sugar residues are 59.5% of the total sugars. The residues of →2,3,6-β-d-Galp1→, →3,4-Galp1→, →3,4,6-Galp1→ and substitutions at O-2 and O-4 position were not identified in previous studies. © 2012.


Nie S.-P.,Nanchang University | Nie S.-P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Wang C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cui S.W.,Nanchang University | And 5 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2013

The structure of gum arabic (Acacia seyal) has been studied using methylation analysis and 2D (COSY, TOCSY, HMQC and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy. Galacturonic acid (13.66%) is a major component not previously identified. The backbone is made up of 1,3-linked galactopyranosyl (Gal. p) residues substituted at O-2, O-6 or O-4 positions, which are terminated with mainly arabinofuranosyl (Ara. f), galacturonopyranosyl (Gal. pA), rhamnopyranosyl (Rha. p), but occasionally with arabinopyranosyl (Ara. p), and glucuronopyranosyl (Glc. pA) residues. There are long side chains of →3)-α-l-Ara. f-(1→ and →2)-α-l-Ara. f-(1→ linked to the backbone. © 2013.


Shi Z.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Zhang Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Phillips G.O.,Glyndwr University | Phillips G.O.,Phillips Hydrocolloids Research Ltd | Yang G.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2014

Bacterial cellulose (BC), a microbial polysaccharide, has significant potential as a food ingredient in view of its high purity, in situ change of flavor and color, and having the ability to form various shapes and textures. As a nano-scale fiber it can form a 3D network structure. Its material properties are multifunctional, with potential uses for thickening and gelling, stabilizing, water-binding and as a packing material. This review deals with current research and possible applications in the food industry. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Nie S.-P.,Nanchang University | Nie S.-P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Cui S.W.,Nanchang University | Cui S.W.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 7 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

The structure of a bioactive hydrophilic polysaccharide fraction from Cordyceps sinensis (CBHP) was studied using methylation analysis and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that it consists mainly of glucose (95.19%) with trace amounts of mannose (0.91%) and galactose (0.61%). The results of methylation analysis indicated that α-1,4 linked Glcp is the main linkage type (65.7%), followed by t-Glcp (20.7%), 1,2,3,6-Glcp (4.1%), 1,2,4,6-Glcp (3.0%), 1,3,6-Glcp (2.0%), 1,4,6-Glcp (1.6%), and 1,2-Manp (1.9%) and 1,3-Galp (1.0%). Based on 1D and 2D NMR analysis, a preliminary structure is proposed: The backbone is composed of Glcp joined by 1 → 4 linkages and 1 → 3 linkages; the branching points are located at O-2 or O-6 of Glcp with α- terminal-d-Glcp as side chain. The trace amounts of 1,2-Manp and 1, 3-Galp linkages are probably located randomly in the side chains. A schematic structure is proposed as following: (Figure Presentation). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Phillips G.O.,Glyndwr University | Phillips G.O.,Phillips Hydrocolloids Research Ltd.
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre | Year: 2013

Consideration is given to the extent to which the definition of a dietary fibre should relate to its chemical nature or to its physiological action. Whereas a dietary fibre needs to fulfil the necessary condition of forming short-chain fatty acid in the colon, any specific health claim must be independently verified. Clarification is also required when interchangeable or overlapping terms are used such as dietary fibre, prebiotic, and probiotic. For biomaterials which show biological activity, the extent to which the whole material provides the bioactivity relative to contribution of specific components needs to be determined. Despite the acceptance of an international definition of dietary fibre by Codex, individual countries and regions tend also to adopt additional requirements. A dilemma could also arise if a decision based on national health research is used to by-pass the cumbersome international regulatory approval procedures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Behrouzian F.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Razavi S.M.A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Phillips G.O.,Glyndwr University | Phillips G.O.,Phillips Hydrocolloids Research Ltd.
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre | Year: 2014

Cress seed mucilage (Lepidium sativum L.), which is used in pharmaceuticals, has attained increased significance in the growing trend towards using natural ingredients. The physicochemical, pharmacological, functional and textural properties are here reviewed, along with its potential as a pharmaceutical excipient, herbal drug, and food ingredient. There is evidence that it can exhibit antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antiasthmatic, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. The rheological properties, gel formation, emulsification, foaming stability and textural attributes are reviewed as a function of pH, sugars, salts and thermal treatments to assess its potential as a natural pharmaceutical and food hydrocolloid. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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