Brown-Johnson C.G.,Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education |
England L.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Glantz S.A.,Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education |
Glantz S.A.,Philip R Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies |
And 2 more authors.
Tobacco Control | Year: 2014
Objectives Describe tobacco companies’ marketing strategies targeting low socioeconomic status (SES) females in the USA.Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents.Results Tobacco companies focused marketing on low SES women starting in the late 1970s, including military wives, low-income inner-city minority women, ‘discountsusceptible’ older female smokers and less-educated young white women. Strategies included distributing discount coupons with food stamps to reach the very poor, discount offers at point-of-sale and via direct mail to keep cigarette prices low, developing new brands for low SES females and promoting luxury images to low SES African-American women. More recently, companies integrated promotional strategies targeting low-income women into marketing plans for established brands.Conclusions Tobacco companies used numerous marketing strategies to reach low SES females in the USA for at least four decades. Strategies to counteract marketing to low SES women could include (1) counteracting price discounts and direct mail coupons that reduce the price of tobacco products, (2) instituting restrictions on point-of-sale advertising and retail display and (3) creating counteradvertising that builds resistance to psychosocial targeting of low SES women. To achieve health equity, tobacco control efforts are needed to counteract the influence of tobacco industry marketing to low-income women. © 2014 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
Patel A.I.,University of California at San Francisco |
Patel A.I.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Shapiro D.J.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Cabana M.D.,University of California at San Francisco |
Cabana M.D.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013
Background Tap water provides a calorie-free, no-cost, environmentally friendly beverage option, yet only some youth drink it. Purpose To examine sociodemographic characteristics, weight status, and beverage intake of those aged 1-19 years who drink tap water. Methods National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005-2010) were used to examine factors associated with tap water consumption. A comparison was made of beverage intake among tap water consumers and nonconsumers, by age, race/ethnicity, and income. Results Tap water consumption was more prevalent among school-aged children (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.47, 2.33, for those aged 6-11 years; OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.32, 2.59, for those aged 12-19 years) as compared to those aged 1-2 years. Tap water intake was less prevalent among girls/women (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.64, 0.89); Mexican Americans (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.23, 0.45); non-Hispanic blacks (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34, 0.67); and others (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.36, 0.68) as compared to whites; Spanish speakers (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55, 0.95); and among referents with a lower than Grade-9 education (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.31, 0.88); Grade 9-11 education (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32, 0.77); and high school/General Educational Development test completion (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.33, 0.76), as compared to college graduates. Tap water consumers drank more fluid (52.5 vs 48.0 ounces, p<0.01); more plain water (20.1 vs 15.2 ounces, p<0.01); and less juice (3.6 vs 5.2 ounces, p<0.01) than nonconsumers. Conclusions One in six children/adolescents does not drink tap water, and this finding is more pronounced among minorities. Sociodemographic disparities in tap water consumption may contribute to disparities in health outcomes. Improvements in drinking water infrastructure and culturally relevant promotion may help to address these issues. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Moriates C.,University of California at San Francisco |
Dohan D.,University of California at San Francisco |
Spetz J.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Spetz J.,University of California at San Francisco |
Sawaya G.F.,University of California at San Francisco
Academic Medicine | Year: 2015
Leaders in medical education have increasingly called for the incorporation of cost awareness and health care value into health professions curricula. Emerging efforts have thus far focused on physicians, but foundational competencies need to be defined related to health care value that span all health professions and stages of training. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Center for Healthcare Value launched an initiative in 2012 that engaged a group of educators from all four health professions schools at UCSF: Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. This group created and agreed on a multidisciplinary set of comprehensive competencies related to health care value. The term "competency" was used to describe components within the larger domain of providing highvalue care. The group then classified the competencies as beginner, proficient, or expert level through an iterative process and group consensus. The group articulated 21 competencies. The beginner competencies include basic principles of health policy, health care delivery, health costs, and insurance. Proficient competencies include real-world applications of concepts to clinical situations, primarily related to the care of individual patients. The expert competencies focus primarily on systems-level design, advocacy, mentorship, and policy. These competencies aim to identify a standard that may help inform the development of curricula across health professions training. These competencies could be translated into the learning objectives and evaluation methods of resources to teach health care value, and they should be considered in educational settings for health care professionals at all levels of training and across a variety of specialties.
Kelley R.K.,University of California at San Francisco |
Van Bebber S.L.,University of California at San Francisco |
Phillips K.A.,University of California at San Francisco |
Phillips K.A.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Venook A.P.,University of California at San Francisco
JNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Year: 2011
Predictive and prognostic biomarkers offer a potential means to personalize cancer medicine, although many reach the marketplace before they have been validated, and their adoption is often hindered by variable clinical evidence. Because of this variability in supporting evidence, clinical practice guidelines formulated by panels of subspecialty experts may be particularly important in guiding stakeholders' acceptance and use of new personalized medicine biomarker tests and other nascent technologies. This article provides a structured review of the clinical evidence supporting 4 contemporary biomarker tests in colorectal cancer: K-ras and B-raf mutation analyses, mismatch repair protein testing, and the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay. All 4 tests have been evaluated for guideline inclusion by the NCCN Guidelines Panel for Colon Cancer. This case study shows significant variability in the level of clinical evidence associated with these tests. In the cases of B-raf and mismatch repair protein testing, the available evidence is also inconsistent as it pertains to the specific NCCN Guideline recommendation. Based on this uncertainty in the evidence base, the authors conclude that expert clinical judgment, experience, and consensus may be more heavily weighted than published clinical trial data in the evaluation of new personalized medicine biomarker tests. Potential implications of this conclusion and future directions for research are discussed. © JNCCN-Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.
Rittenhouse D.R.,University of California at San Francisco |
Schmidt L.A.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Wu K.J.,University of California at San Francisco |
Wiley J.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies
Health Affairs | Year: 2012
Hurricane Katrina destroyed much of the health care infrastructure in and around New Orleans in 2005.We describe a natural experiment that occurred afterward, amid efforts to rebuild the city's health care system, in which diverse safety-net clinics were transformed into medical homes. Using surveys of clinic leaders and administrative data, we found that clinics made substantial progress in implementing new clinical processes to improve access, quality and safety, and care coordination and integration. But there was wide variation, with some clinics making only minimal progress. Because the transformation was closely tied to the receipt of federal grants and bonus payments, we observed declines in performance toward the end of the study, when clinics faced diminished federal funding and refocused their priorities on survival. Now that federal funds have dried up, moreover, clinics may be losing ground in sustaining their practice changes. The experience shows that payment to support medical home transformation must be robust and stable, and clinics need to be fully integrated into the broader health care system to improve overall coordination of care. © 2012 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
ACC/AHA statement on cost/value methodology in clinical practice guidelines and performance measures: A report of the American college of cardiology/American heart association task force on performance measures and task force on practice guidelines
Anderson J.L.,Intermountain Medical Center |
Heidenreich P.A.,Palo Alto Medical Center |
Barnett P.G.,Palo Alto Medical Center |
Creager M.A.,Brigham and Women's Hospital |
And 14 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2014
Traditionally, resource utilization and value considerations have been explicitly excluded from practice guidelines and performance measures formulations, although they often are implicitly considered. This document challenges this historical policy. With accelerating healthcare costs and the desire to achieve the best value (health benefit for every dollar spent), there is growing recognition of the need for more explicit and transparent assessment of the value of health care. Thus, from a societal policy perspective, a critical healthcare goal should be to achieve the best possible health outcomes with finite healthcare resources. Consideration of cost/resource utilization as an outcome presents special challenges. Frequently, the scientific evidence base is inadequate to accurately assess cost-benefit. Also, costs may vary widely by practice setting, locality, and nationality, and over time. Moreover, individuals bear the burden of adverse health outcomes, yet costs typically are shared by society (eg, by families, employers, government, premium payers, fellow employees, taxpayers). Finally, attitudes differ among stakeholders about the extent to which cost should influence treatment decisions for individual patients and who should bear these costs. Consequently, resource utilization debates often become highly politicized, and significant conflicts of interest among individuals impaneled to formulate resource-based guidelines may be difficult to avoid. A transparent and consistent approach to considering value is needed when making healthcare decisions. This must begin with an understanding of key economic concepts, including allocation of resources to produce more health care of various types, methods for assessing the monetary value of these resources, and the perspective used for making this assessment of the value of healthcare expenditures (ie, societal perspective, individual patient costs, hospital costs, and payer costs). Methodological challenges include limitations in the robustness and quality of value evidence, regional variations in costs, and outdated (temporally dynamic) and biased data. Despite these challenges, the writing committee agreed that progress has been made in these areas and that the need for greater transparency and utility in addressing resource issues has become acute enough that the time has come to include cost-effectiveness/value assessments and recommendations in practice guidelines and performance measures. The writing committee chose to emphasize the nomenclatures of "value" and "resource utilization" over "cost." Given evidence and resource limitations, the writing committee also recognized the need to selectively target guidelines and performance measures for initial resource use evaluation. A plan for performing a thorough, independent literature search and a consistent method for assessing the quality and potential for bias of identified articles should be prospectively designated. The evidence base then should be synthesized to provide an overall value classification together with a supporting level of evidence, which should be reported alongside but separate from the scientific class and level/quality of evidence. The proposed level of value (LOV) categories, outlined in Section 5 of this paper, are high value (H), intermediate value (I), and low value (L), augmented as appropriate with uncertain value (U) and value not assessed (NA). For example, high value might be set at <$50 000 and low value at >$150 000 per quality of life-year added, indexed to gross domestic product (GDP) or as otherwise determined by agreed-on societal norms. The value category (ie, H, I, L, U) would be supplemented by a level/quality of evidence paralleling those for scientific level of evidence (ie, A, B, and C) and based on the robustness of the database supporting the value category. These value assessments would also inform development of performance measures. Class I recommendations determined to be of low value would not be recommended as performance measures. Because the value of a given care practice will change if the cost or benefit of the practice changes, timely review and updates of guidelines will be even more important when value determinations are included in the guidelines. This report stresses that the value category should be only one of several considerations in medical decision making and resource allocation. Providers and society may be willing to pay more for the only effective treatment for a rare disease (eg, congenital versus adult cardiac care). As noted, given differing methodologies, quality of evidence, and temporal and geographic dynamics of resource and value assessments, the value level of a recommendation should be given separately and not averaged together with the level/quality of evidence from clinical trial results as a single metric. It is anticipated that these will usually be concordant, but in some cases, discordance may be noted (eg, an intervention is shown to provide a small incremental health care benefit but at a high cost in resources). Defining how medical decision making should be affected in specific instances by such discordance between value and guideline recommendations is controversial, but highlighting these instances explicitly and transparently will further inform appropriate discussion and policy making. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Cabana M.D.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Coffman J.M.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Coffman J.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011
Purpose of Review: Asthma education is a key component of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) asthma guidelines. Although the benefits and importance of asthma patient education are well documented, there are still many open questions regarding how to best provide asthma education. The following review highlights recent developments in this topic. Recent Findings: Recent innovations have applied asthma education in a variety of settings. Ensuring that health professionals within a community provide consistent educational messages about asthma can create synergy and leverage limited healthcare resources to improve outcomes. In addition, children seem to have greater responsibility for self-management of asthma at younger ages. Summary: Further work is needed to understand how clinicians can best educate and give parents anticipatory guidance about how to best teach and transfer asthma self-management skills to young children. By developing teaching and mastering self-management skills at an early age, children may be able to carry such skills into adulthood. Finally, given the prevalence of healthcare disparities, there is a continued need for rigorously evaluated programs that are culturally appropriate and effective. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lempert L.K.,Philip R Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies |
Glantz S.,University of California at San Francisco
Tobacco Control | Year: 2016
Background Tobacco companies use colour on cigarette packaging and labelling to communicate brand imagery, diminish health concerns, and as a replacement for prohibited descriptive words ('light' and 'mild') to make misleading claims about reduced risks. Methods We analysed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify additional ways in which cigarette companies tested and manipulated pack colours to affect consumers' perceptions of the cigarettes' flavour and strength. Results Cigarette companies' approach to package design is based on 'sensation transference' in which consumers transfer sensations they derive from the packaging to the product itself. Companies manipulate consumers' perceptions of the taste and strength of cigarettes by changing the colour of the packaging. For example, even without changes to the tobacco blends, flavourings or additives, consumers perceive the taste of cigarettes in packages with red and darker colours to be fuller flavoured and stronger, and cigarettes in packs with more white and lighter colours are perceived to taste lighter and be less harmful. Conclusions Companies use pack colours to manipulate consumers' perceptions of the taste, strength and health impacts of the cigarettes inside the packs, thereby altering their characteristics and effectively creating new products. In countries that do not require standardised packaging, regulators should consider colour equivalently to other changes in cigarette characteristics (eg, physical characteristics, ingredients, additives and flavourings) when making determinations about whether or not to permit new products on the market. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Patel A.I.,University of California at San Francisco |
Patel A.I.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies |
Hampton K.E.,Public Health Law and Policy
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011
Children and adolescents are not consuming enough water, instead opting for sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas, sports and energy drinks, milks, coffees, and fruit-flavored drinks with added sugars), 100% fruit juice, and other beverages. Drinking sufficient amounts of water can lead to improved weight status, reduced dental caries and improved cognition among children and adolescents. Because children spend most of their day at school and in child care, ensuring that safe, potable drinking water is available in these settings is a fundamental public health measure. We sought to identify challenges that limit access to drinking water; opportunities, including promising practices, to increase drinking water availability and consumption; and future research, policy efforts, and funding needed in this area.
Taylor A.L.,Johns Hopkins University |
Parento E.W.,Georgetown University |
Schmidt L.A.,Philip R Lee Institute For Health Policy Studies
Indiana Law Journal | Year: 2015
Obesity is a global epidemic, exacting an enormous human and economic toll. In the absence of a comprehensive global governance strategy, states have increasingly employed a wide array of legal strategies targeting the drivers of obesity. This Article identifies recent global trends in obesity-related legislation and makes the normative case for an updated global governance strategy. National governments have responded to the epidemic both by strengthening traditional interventions and by developing novel legislative strategies. This response consists of nine important trends: (1) strengthened and tailored tax measures; (2) broadened use of counter-advertising and health campaigns; (3) expanded food labeling; (4) increased attention to the built environment; (5) expanded use of bundled school-based strategies; (6) imposed greater restrictions on advertising and marketing to children; (7) strengthened restrictions, standards, and bans on specific foods and food additives; (8) created more targeted screening and brief interventions; and (9) ensured creative use of integrated programs to promote sustainable agriculture, environment, and healthy food. Despite this response, there remains a need to create a centralized, publicly accessible database of interventions. In addition, the scale of the obesity epidemic combined with the global trend toward more comprehensive regulation may for the first time create political space and will for an international obesity strategy. Copyright © 2015 Allyn L. Taylor, Emily Whelan Parento & Laura A. Schmidt.