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PubMed | Scottish Primate Research Group, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Yale University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) | Year: 2016

One way to gain insights into personality evolution is by comparing the personality structures of related species. We compared the personality structure of 240 wild white-faced capuchin monkeys to the personality structure of 100 captive brown capuchin monkeys. An ancillary goal was to test the degree to which different personality questionnaires yielded similar personality dimensions. Both species were rated on a common set of 26 antonym pairs. The brown capuchin monkeys were also rated on the 54-item Hominoid Personality Questionnaire. Our cross-species comparisons revealed 3 personality dimensions-Assertiveness, Openness, and Neuroticism-shared by brown and white-faced capuchins, suggesting that these dimensions were present in the common ancestor of these species. Our comparison of the dimensions derived from the antonym pairs and the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire revealed that three common dimensions were identified by both questionnaires. In addition, the dimension Attentiveness was only identified using the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire. These results indicate that major features of capuchin personality are conserved and that the structure of some traits, such as those related to focus, persistence, and attention, diverged. Further work is needed to identify the evolutionary bases that led to the conservation of some dimensions but not others. (PsycINFO Database Record

Archie E.A.,Smithsonian Institution | Archie E.A.,University of Notre Dame | Henry T.,Smithsonian Institution | Henry T.,George Mason University | And 7 more authors.
Immunogenetics | Year: 2010

Genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial to defense against infectious disease, provide an important measure of functional genetic diversity, and have been implicated in mate choice and kin recognition. As a result, MHC loci have been characterized for a number of vertebrate species, especially mammals; however, elephants are a notable exception. Our study is the first to characterize patterns of genetic diversity and natural selection in the elephant MHC. We did so using DNA sequences from a single, expressed DQA locus in elephants. We characterized six alleles in 30 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and four alleles in three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). In addition, for two of the African alleles and three of the Asian alleles, we characterized complete coding sequences (exons 1-5) and nearly complete non-coding sequences (introns 2-4) for the class II DQA loci. Compared to DQA in other wild mammals, we found moderate polymorphism and allelic diversity and similar patterns of selection; patterns of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions were consistent with balancing selection acting on the peptides involved in antigen binding in the second exon. In addition, balancing selection has led to strong trans-species allelism that has maintained multiple allelic lineages across both genera of extant elephants for at least 6 million years. We discuss our results in the context of MHC diversity in other mammals and patterns of evolution in elephants. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Sim R.R.,Maryland Zoo in Baltimore | Sim R.R.,Birmingham Zoo Inc. | Allender M.C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Crawford L.K.,Johns Hopkins University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) and are becoming recognized as significant pathogens of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in North America. In July 2011, 5 turtles from a group of 27 in Maryland, USA, presented dead or lethargic with what was later diagnosed as fibrinonecrotic stomatitis and cloacitis. The presence of FV3-like virus and herpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the tested index cases. The remaining 22 animals were isolated, segregated by severity of clinical signs, and treated with nutritional support, fluid therapy, ambient temperature management, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy. Oral swabs were tested serially for FV3-like virus by quantitative real-Time PCR (qPCR) and tested at day 0 for herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by conventional PCR. With oral swabs, 77% of the 22 turtles were FV3-like virus positive; however, qPCR on tissues taken during necropsy revealed the true prevalence was 86%. FV3-like virus prevalence and the median number of viral copies being shed significantly declined during the outbreak. The prevalence of herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by PCR of oral swabs at day 0 was 55% and 68%, respectively. The 58% survival rate was higher than previously reported in captive eastern box turtles for a ranavirus epizootic. All surviving turtles brumated normally and emerged the following year with no clinical signs during subsequent monitoring. The immediate initiation of treatment and intensive supportive care were considered the most important contributing factors to the successful outcome in this outbreak. © Copyright 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Kierulff M.C.M.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Kierulff M.C.M.,Instituto Pri Matas para a Conservacao da Biodiversidade | Ruiz-Miranda C.R.,State University of Norte Fluminense | de Oliveira P.P.,Instituto Pri Matas para a Conservacao da Biodiversidade | And 5 more authors.
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2012

In 1960, the Golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia was almost extinct in the wild and the captive population, with poor reproduction and survival, was not well established. In the 1970s, after many improvements, the captive population began to grow and the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve was created to protect the species. In the 1980s, long-term research was begun on the demography and socio-ecology of the Golden lion tamarins, along with community environmental education and a reintroduction programme of captive-born animals (initially in the reserve, later in neighbouring private forests). About 30 zoos contributed the 146 captive-born reintroduced tamarins, and provided information on social behaviour, nutrition and health that was critical to developing reintroduction strategies. In 1994, threatened groups isolated in small fragments were rescued and translocated to a protected forest. Both programmes have been successful as measured by survival and reproduction after release, and both techniques have established growing populations. Although new threats (introduction of exotic primates) continue to challenge our efforts to preserve the species, there is no doubt of the success of almost 30 years of the Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Programme. © 2012 The Authors. International Zoo Yearbook © 2012 The Zoological Society of London.

PubMed | University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Zoo and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2016

Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts.

News Article | December 22, 2016

She's Colo, the nation's oldest living gorilla, and she turned 60 on Thursday at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium. Colo was the first gorilla in the world born in a zoo and has surpassed the usual life expectancy of captive gorillas by two decades. Her longevity is putting a spotlight on the medical care, nutrition and up-to-date therapeutic techniques that are helping lengthen zoo animals' lives. "Colo just epitomizes the advances that zoos have made, going all the way back to her birth at Columbus," said Dr. Tom Meehan, vice president for veterinary services at Chicago's Brookfield Zoo and veterinary adviser to a national gorilla species survival plan. The changes also mean more animals living with the normal aches and pains of growing older. Today, zoo veterinarians regularly treat animals for heart and kidney disease, arthritis, dental problems and cancer. Hundreds of people gathered at the zoo Thursday to see Colo, singing "Happy Birthday" moments before the gorilla ambled into an enclosure decorated with multicolored construction paper chains and filled with cakes such as squash and beet and cornbread with mashed potato parsley frosting. Among the first in line was Pam Schlereth of Columbus, who at 63 was just a little girl when her father brought her to see the newborn Colo in a gorilla incubator in 1956. "It's a tribute to the zoo that she's alive at 60 years old," Schlereth said. Colo represents so much to the zoo, Tom Stalf, president of the zoo, told the crowd. "It's all about connecting people and wildlife," he said. Colo is one of several elderly gorillas around the country. The oldest known living male gorilla, Ozzie, is 55 years old and lives at the Atlanta Zoo, which has a geriatric gorilla specialty. At Seattle's Woodland Park Zoo, staff members use acupuncture, massage, laser therapy, and heat and joint supplements to help Emma, a 13-year-old rabbit. At the National Zoo in Washington, Shanthi, a 42-year-old Asian elephant with arthritis, receives osteoarthritis therapy and was recently fitted with specially crafted front foot boots to help her feet heal as medications are applied. In Oakland, California, Tiki, a 27-year-old giraffe and one of the oldest in the nation, gets foot care, massage therapy, acupuncture and chiropractic care, along with traditional veterinary medicine. Gao Gao, a 26-year-old male panda at the San Diego Zoo with a heart condition, periodically undergoes cardiac ultrasounds. "Geriatrics is probably one of our most common medical challenges that we face in a zoo situation," said Dr. Keith Hinshaw, director of animal health at the Philadelphia Zoo. "So pretty much anything that you could imagine would happen with an older person is going to happen eventually with any animal." That's up to and including medication: JJ, a 45-year-old orangutan at the Toledo Zoo, is on the human heart medicines carvedilol and Lisinopril, along with pain and orthopedic medications. He also takes Metamucil. Colo, a western lowland gorilla, holds several other records. On her 56th birthday in 2012, she exceeded the record for longest-lived gorilla. On Thursday, she surpasses the median life expectancy for female gorillas in human care (37.5 years) by more than two decades. Coldilocks, a 36-year-old polar bear at the Philadelphia Zoo and considered the oldest polar bear in the U.S. The bears' typical lifespan in captivity is 23 years. The zoo says treating her early for kidney disease appears to have helped prolong her life. Elly, an eastern black rhino at the San Francisco Zoo estimated to be 46 years old, is the oldest of her species in North America. She has had 14 calves, and her offspring have produced 15 grandchildren, 6 great-grandchildren and 1 great-great-grandchild. Packy, an Asian elephant at the Oregon Zoo, and at 54, the oldest male of his species in North America. The zoo says Packy, born in 1962, became the first elephant to be born in the Western Hemisphere in 44 years. Nikko, a 33-year-old snow monkey at the Minnesota Zoo, the oldest male snow monkey in North America. Little Mama, a chimpanzee living at Lion Country Safari in Loxahatchee, Florida, with an estimated age in her late 70s. She takes allergy medicine, iron supplements and omega 3 multivitamins, and has been trained to accept a nebulizer treatment for coughing. Emerson, a Galapagos tortoise at the Toledo Zoo in Ohio, whose age is estimated at about 100. Michele Frymen, from left, Christy Anderson and Jacob Anderson, all from Columbus, hold up a birthday cake and wave as they get their picture taken during some festivities in the food court as part of the 60th birthday celebration for Colo, the nation's oldest living gorilla, at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, Thursday, Dec. 22, 2016 in Columbus, Ohio. Colo was the first gorilla in the world born in a zoo and has surpassed the usual life expectancy of captive gorillas by two decades. Her longevity is putting a spotlight on the medical care, nutrition and up-to-date therapeutic techniques that are helping lengthen zoo animals' lives. (AP Photo/Ty Wright) In this Dec. 16, 2016 file photo, Coldilocks the polar bear looks up from a nap at the Philadelphia Zoo in Philadelphia. Coldilocks, who celebrated her 36th birthday last week, is considered the oldest polar bear in the U.S. The bears' typical lifespan in captivity is 23 years. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke, File) In this March 27, 2012 file photo, Packy, an Asian elephant, is sprayed with water at the Oregon Zoo, in Portland. Packy at 54 is the oldest male of his species in North America. The zoo says Packy, born in 1962, became the first elephant to be born in the Western Hemisphere in 44 years. (Randy L. Rasmussen/The Oregonian via AP, File) Explore further: Oldest zoo gorilla doing well after biopsy before birthday

Perry J.M.G.,Johns Hopkins University | Bastian M.L.,Philadelphia Zoo | St Clair E.,Johns Hopkins University | Hartstone-Rose A.,University of South Carolina
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Objectives Maximum ingested food size (Vb) is an empirically tested performance variable that can shed light on feeding energetics and adaptation in the masticatory system. Until now, this variable had been tested in strepsirrhines alone among primates. Here, we present the first data on Vb in a broad sample of anthropoid primates and describe scaling patterns. Materials and Methods Vb data on anthropoids were collected under captive conditions at the Philadelphia Zoo and compared with published data on strepsirrhines. Data on Vb were scaled against individual body mass and were compared with experimentally determined toughness and stiffness values for the test foods. Results Unlike in strepsirrhines, where essentially Vb scales isometrically with body mass, Vb in anthropoids scales with negative allometry. There is a significant effect of food material properties on Vb, although bite size in anthropoids varies less based on food properties than in strepsirrhines. Large folivorous strepsirrhines follow the anthropoid trend in bite size scaling, but large frugivorous ones take especially large bites. Discussion Negative scaling of bite size in the anthropoids sampled could be due to reduced adaptation for gape. Some early anthropoids likely evolved adaptations for maximizing mechanical advantage and fatigue resistance in the chewing muscles, resulting in reduced gape. This might have channeled them toward smaller bites of more-resistant foods and away from taking large bites. This might also be the case for some folivorous strepsirrhines. Am J Phys Anthropol 158:92-104, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bastian M.L.,Philadelphia Zoo | Bastian M.L.,Duke University | Van Noordwijk M.A.,University of Zürich | Van Schaik C.P.,Philadelphia Zoo | Van Schaik C.P.,University of Zürich
Behaviour | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to assess whether geographic variation in wild orangutan behavior reflected the presence of innovations or merely variation induced by genetic or environmental differences. We improved upon previous attempts to answer this question in three complementary ways. First, to minimize the possible effects of differences in genetic composition or the physical, biological and social environment, we compared a population of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) at a new site (Sungai Lading) with that of an established site (Tuanan). These two populations were physically separated but showed high genetic similarity and occupied very similar habitats, leaving different innovation histories as the only plausible source of significant differences in their behavioral repertoires, if these were found. Second, we used identical observation methods and overlapping observers at both sites, deliberately attempting to record the full behavioral repertoire. Third, we introduced statistical techniques to reduce the likelihood of false absences. The results showed several behavior patterns unique to the new site, as well as the absence of several patterns observed at the established site, most of them satisfying the criteria previously proposed for recognizing innovations. We, thus, confirm that orangutans produce behavioral innovations, and conclude that the geographic method for identifying innovations in wild populations is a valid, albeit conservative, approach that can complement other techniques. Finally, the results also strongly support a cultural interpretation of geographic variation in orangutan behavior. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

News Article | December 21, 2016

OAKS, Pa., Dec. 21, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- SEI (NASDAQ:SEIC) Women’s Network hosted its third annual Leadership Summit on Dec. 7 at the company’s corporate headquarters in Oaks, PA. This year’s summit, “Beyond Boundaries,” featured a variety of presentations, panel discussions, and breakout sessions focusing on leadership, risk-taking, and personal brand development. More than 250 business professionals from SEI and the Philadelphia area attended the event. “The Leadership Summit’s success is evidenced by its growing attendance and active participation by the attendees,” said Vivian Estadt, President of SEI Women’s Network. “We are honored to host this event and provide a forum for our area’s leaders to encourage professional and personal development for women in the workforce.” The conference kicked off with its high-impact “Three Talks. Three Ideas. One Hour.” The TED-talk-style session featured three speakers, including TED Content Director Kelly Stoetzel. Each person took 20 minutes to cover topics that addressed eliminating self-imposed limits, delivering memorable and inspirational content, and taking risks to encourage personal and professional growth. The session ended with all three speakers participating in a rapid-fire Q&A with the audience. Attendees chose from four topics for the afternoon breakout sessions: Breakout sessions were led by business leaders from SEI, the Arts and Business Council of Greater Philadelphia, the Philadelphia Zoo, Thrive Wealth Management, and Legacy Care Wealth. Kathleen McQuiggan of PAX World, concluded the event with a keynote address focused on managing passion, purpose, and profession. She encouraged the audience to learn the value of relationship capital when navigating and building a career. Participants attended a cocktail reception after the conference’s closing remarks, where they networked and further reflected on the day’s leadership advice. About SEI Women’s Network The SEI Women’s Network, founded in 2007, seeks to inspire and support the professional growth of women in the surrounding community by providing educational forums, hosting networking opportunities and encouraging success through personal and professional growth. The Network is led by a board of 17 women directors, with an average of 19 years work experience. Since its inception, over 4,000 employees have attended many SEI Women’s Network events focused on educating, inspiring and connecting women in the community. The group hosted its inaugural Women’s Leadership Summit in December of 2014, and in November 2015 began partnering annually with the Kimmel Center to host “Higher Notes” which connects more than 100 women leaders in the Philadelphia community. About SEI SEI (NASDAQ:SEIC) is a leading global provider of investment processing, investment management, and investment operations solutions that help corporations, financial institutions, financial advisors, and ultra-high-net-worth families create and manage wealth. As of September 30, 2016, through its subsidiaries and partnerships in which the company has a significant interest, SEI manages or administers $751 billion in mutual fund and pooled or separately managed assets, including $281 billion in assets under management and $470 billion in client assets under administration. For more information, visit

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