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Azzam G.,Drexel University | Lanciano R.,Drexel University | Lanciano R.,Philadelphia CyberKnife Center | Arrigo S.,Drexel University | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2015

Objective: Oligometastatic prostate cancer is a limited metastatic disease state in which potential long-term control is still possible with the use of targeted therapies such as surgery or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT may as well potentially prolong the time before the initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and docetaxel chemotherapy for oligometastatic prostate cancer. The goal of this study is to outline prognostic factors associated with improved outcome with SBRT for metastatic prostate cancer and to quantify the effect of prior systemic treatments such as ADT and docetaxel on survival after SBRT. Methods: Twenty-four prostate cancer patients were treated with SBRT at the Philadelphia CyberKnife Center between August 2007 and April 2014. Retrospective data collection and analysis were performed for these patients on this Institutional Review Board approved study. Kaplan-Meier methodology was utilized to estimate and visually assess overall survival (OS) at the patient level, with comparisons accomplished using the log-rank test. Unadjusted hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results: An improved median survival was noted for patients with oligometastatic disease defined as ≤4 lesions with median survival of >3 years compared with 11 months for polymetastases (p = 0.02). The use of docetaxel at some time in follow-up either before or after SBRT was associated with decreased survival with median survival of 9 months vs. >3 years (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Prognosis was better for men with recurrent prostate cancer treated with SBRT if they had ≤4 metastases (oligometastases) or if docetaxel was not necessary for salvage treatment. The prolonged median OS for men with oligometastases in this population of heavily pretreated prostate cancer patients following SBRT may allow for improved quality of life because of a delay of more toxic salvage therapies. © 2015 Azzam, Lanciano, Arrigo, Lamond, Ding, Yang, Hanlon, Good and Brady. Source

Bernetich M.,Rowan University | Bernetich M.,Philadelphia CyberKnife Center | Oliai C.,Philadelphia CyberKnife Center | Lanciano R.,Philadelphia CyberKnife Center | And 15 more authors.
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To report an update of our previous experience using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the primary treatment of prostate cancer, risk stratified by the updated National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) version 2.2014, reporting efficacy and toxicity in a community hospital setting. Methods: From 2007 to 2012, 142 localized prostate cancer patients were treated with SBRT using CyberKnife. NCCN guidelines Version 2.2014 risk groups analyzed included very low (20%), low (23%), intermediate (35%), and high (22%) risk. To further explore group heterogeneity and to comply with new guidelines, we separated our prior intermediate risk group into favorable intermediate and unfavorable intermediate groups depending on how many intermediate risk factors were present (one vs. > one). The unfavorable intermediate group was further analyzed in combination with the high risk group as per NCCN guidelines Version 2.2014. Various dose levels were used over the years of treatment, and have been categorized into low dose (35 Gy, n = 5 or 36.25 Gy, n = 107) and high dose (37.5 Gy, n = 30). All treatments were delivered in five fractions. Toxicity was assessed using radiation therapy oncology group criteria. Results: Five-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) was 100, 91.7, 95.2, 90.0, and 86.7% for very low, low, intermediate and high risk patients, respectively. A significant difference in 5 year FFBF was noted for patients with Gleason score (GS) ≥8 vs. 7 vs. 5/6 (p = 0.03) and low vs. high dose (p = 0.05). T-stage, pretreatment PSA, age, risk stratification group, and use of ADT did not affect 5-year FFBF. Multivariate analysis revealed GS and dose to be the most predictive factors for 5-year FFBF. Conclusion: Our experience with SBRT for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer demonstrates favorable efficacy and toxicity comparable to the results reported for IMRT in literature. GS remains the single most important pretreatment predictor of outcome. © 2014 Bernetich, Oliai, Lanciano, Hanlon, Lamond, Arrigo, Yang, Good, Feng, Brown, Garber, Mooreville and Brady. Source

Townsend N.C.,Drexel University | Huth B.J.,Drexel University | Ding W.,Drexel University | Garber B.,Drexel University | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate acute toxicity outcomes of prostate cancer patients treated with CyberKnife-delivered hypofractionated radiotherapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review analysis of the first 50 patients treated with CyberKnife radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Most patients were affected with early to intermediate stage prostate cancer. Two patients had metastatic disease at presentation and were excluded. A total of 37 patients received irradiation at a dose of 35 to 37.5 Gy in 5 fractions of 7 to 7.5 Gy per fraction. Assuming an alpha/beta ratio of 1.5 Gy, this process delivered an equivalent dose of 85 to 96 Gy in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2). A subset of patients (n = 11) received standard linear accelerator-based pelvic radiation treatment either by intensity modulated radiation therapy or tomotherapy and received a boost via the CyberKnife at a dose of 17.6 to 25 Gy in 2 to 5 fractions (EQD2= 46.6-72 Gy). The acute toxicities were recorded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, throughout treatment and at patients' follow-up visits. Results: The median patient age at presentation was 66 years (range, 46-80). The mean pretreatment prostate specific antigen and Gleason scores were 9.16 ng/mL and 7, respectively. Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was reported by 10% of patients (n = 5). Only 3 patients reported grade 3 acute genitourinary toxicity. No gastrointestinal grade 2 or grade 3 toxicities were reported. Conclusions: CyberKnife-delivered hypofractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has an acceptable acute toxicity profile. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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