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Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Germany

Guillot A.,PHAST GmbH | Guillot A.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Guillot A.,PHAST Development GmbH and Co. KG | Couffin A.-C.,University Grenoble alpes | And 8 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Contrary to physical characterization techniques for nanopharmaceuticals (shape, size and zeta-potential), the techniques to quantify the free and the entrapped drug remain very few and difficult to transpose in routine analytical laboratories. The application of Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) technique was investigated to overcome this challenge. Methods: The separation of free and entrapped drug by SPE was quantitatively validated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The developed protocol was implemented to characterize cyclosporine A-loaded 120 nm-sized lipid nanoparticles (LNPs, Lipidot®) dispersed in aqueous buffer. The colloidal stability was assessed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Results: Validation experiments demonstrated suitable linearity, repeatability, accuracy and specificity to quantify residual free, entrapped and total drug. For the investigated LNPs, the method revealed a very limited shelflife of the formulation when stored in an aqueous buffer at 5°C and even more at elevated temperature. Nevertheless, the DLS measurements confirmed the stability of nanoparticles during SPE in a suitable concentration range. Conclusions: SPE, when successfully validated, represents a valuable tool for drug development and quality control purposes of lipid-based nanopharmaceuticals in an industrial environment. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Guillot A.,PHAST GmbH | Guillot A.,Helmholtz Center for Infection Research | Guillot A.,PHAST Development GmbH & Co. KG | Couffin A.-C.,University Grenoble alpes | And 8 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Contrary to physical characterization techniques for nanopharmaceuticals (shape, size and zeta-potential), the techniques to quantify the free and the entrapped drug remain very few and difficult to transpose in routine analytical laboratories. The application of Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) technique was investigated to overcome this challenge. Methods: The separation of free and entrapped drug by SPE was quantitatively validated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The developed protocol was implemented to characterize cyclosporine A-loaded 120 nm-sized lipid nanoparticles (LNPs, Lipidot®) dispersed in aqueous buffer. The colloidal stability was assessed by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Results: Validation experiments demonstrated suitable linearity, repeatability, accuracy and specificity to quantify residual free, entrapped and total drug. For the investigated LNPs, the method revealed a very limited shelflife of the formulation when stored in an aqueous buffer at 5°C and even more at elevated temperature. Nevertheless, the DLS measurements confirmed the stability of nanoparticles during SPE in a suitable concentration range. Conclusions: SPE, when successfully validated, represents a valuable tool for drug development and quality control purposes of lipid-based nanopharmaceuticals in an industrial environment. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Reischmann P.,Kaiserslautern University of Applied Sciences | Fiebeck J.,Kaiserslautern University of Applied Sciences | Von Der Weiden N.,PHAST GmbH | Muller O.,Kaiserslautern University of Applied Sciences
International Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2015

The Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with many essential cell processes. This study aims to examine the effects of Wnt signaling on proliferation of cultured HEK293T cells. Cells were incubated with Wnt3a, and the activation of the Wnt pathway was followed by analysis of the level of the β-catenin protein and of the expression levels of the target genes MYC and CCND1. The level of β-catenin protein increased up to fourfold. While the mRNA levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1 increased slightly, the protein levels increased up to a factor of 1.5. Remarkably, MTT and BrdU assays showed different results when measuring the proliferation rate of Wnt3a stimulated HEK293T cells. In the BrdU assays an increase of the proliferation rate could be detected, which correlated to the applied Wnt3a concentration. Oppositely, this correlation could not be shown in the MTT assays. The MTT results, which are based on the mitochondrial activity, were confirmed by analysis of the succinate dehydrogenase complex by immunofluorescence and by western blotting. Taken together, our study shows that Wnt3a activates proliferation of HEK293 cells. These effects can be detected by measuring DNA synthesis rather than by measuring changes of mitochondrial activity. © 2015 Patricia Reischmann et al. Source


Gajendran J.,PHAST GmbH | Gajendran J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Kramer J.,PHAST GmbH | Shah V.P.,International Pharmaceutical Federation | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Literature data relevant to the biopharmaceutical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) nifedipine are reviewed to evaluate whether a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing of immediate-release (IR) dosage forms formulated as tablets and soft gelatin capsules is warranted. Nifedipine's solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and index, pharmacokinetics, food drug interactions, and any reported BE/bioavailability problems were all taken into consideration. Solubility and BA data indicate conclusively that nifedipine is a class II substance of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and that the formulation of drug product plays a key role on the dissolution characteristics of the API. Therefore, a BCS biowaiver-based approval of nifedipine containing IR oral dosage forms cannot be recommended for reformulated/new multisource drug products or for major scale-up and postapproval changes to the existing drug products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3289-3298. Source


Gajendran J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Gajendran J.,PHAST GmbH | Kraemer J.,PHAST GmbH | Langguth P.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Biopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition | Year: 2012

Understanding the performance of a drug product in vivo plays a key role in the development of meaningful in vitro drug release methodology. In case of functional chewing gums, the mode and the mechanism of release and the site of application differ significantly from other conventional solid oral dosage forms and require a special consideration to extract meaningful information from clinical studies. In the current study, suitable drug release methodology was developed to predict the in vivo performance of an investigated chewing gum product. Different parameters of the drug release testing apparatus described in the Ph. Eur. and Pharmeuropa were evaluated. Drug release data indicate that the parameters, chewing distance, chewing frequency and twisting motion, affect the drug release. Higher drug release was observed when the frequency was changed from 40 chews/min to 60 chews/min for apparatus A and B, as was the case for the twisting motion when changed from 20° to 40° for apparatus B. As far as the chewing distance is concerned, the release rate was in the following order; apparatus A: 0.3 mm > 0.5 mm > 0.7 mm; apparatus B: 1.4 mm > 1.6 mm > 1.8 mm. A suitable apparatus set-up for in vitro release testing was identified. The method will be useful for the establishment of in vitro in vivo correlations (IVIVC) for medicated chewing gums. Interchangeability of the apparatus for a product is not generally recommended without prior knowledge of the performance of the product, as the construction and principle of operation for the apparatus differ considerably. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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