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Lolkema M.P.,Phase I Unit | Lolkema M.P.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Bohets H.H.,Janssen Research and Development | Arkenau H.-T.,Phase I Unit | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays an important role in tumorigenesis and is a novel target for anticancer treatment. This phase I, first-in-human trial, explored safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and initial antitumor activity of JNJ-38877605, a potent and selective c-Met inhibitor. Experimental Design: We performed a phase I dose-escalation study according to the standard 3+3 design. Results: Even at subtherapeutic doses, mild though recurrent renal toxicity was observed in virtually all patients. Renal toxicity had not been observed in preclinical studies in rats and dogs. Additional preclinical studies pointed toward the rabbit as a suitable toxicology model, as the formation of the M10 metabolite of JNJ-38877605 specifically occurred in rabbits and humans. Additional toxicology studies in rabbits clearly demonstrated that JNJ-38877605 induced species-specific renal toxicity. Histopathological evaluation in rabbits revealed renal crystal formation with degenerative and inflammatory changes. Identification of the components of these renal crystals revealed M1/3 and M5/6 metabolites. Accordingly, it was found that humans and rabbits showed significantly increased systemic exposure to these metabolites relative to other species. These main culprit insoluble metabolites were generated by aldehyde oxidase activity. Alternative dosing schedules of JNJ-3877605 and concomitant probenecid administration in rabbits failed to prevent renal toxicity at dose levels that could be pharmacologically active. Conclusions: Combined clinical and correlative preclinical studies suggest that renal toxicity of JNJ-38877605 is caused by the formation of species-specific insoluble metabolites. These observations preclude further clinical development of JNJ-38877605. © 2015 AACR.


PubMed | Phase I Unit, Janssen Research and Development and Netherlands Cancer Institute
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase I | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2015

The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays an important role in tumorigenesis and is a novel target for anticancer treatment. This phase I, first-in-human trial, explored safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and initial antitumor activity of JNJ-38877605, a potent and selective c-Met inhibitor.We performed a phase I dose-escalation study according to the standard 3+3 design.Even at subtherapeutic doses, mild though recurrent renal toxicity was observed in virtually all patients. Renal toxicity had not been observed in preclinical studies in rats and dogs. Additional preclinical studies pointed toward the rabbit as a suitable toxicology model, as the formation of the M10 metabolite of JNJ-38877605 specifically occurred in rabbits and humans. Additional toxicology studies in rabbits clearly demonstrated that JNJ-38877605 induced species-specific renal toxicity. Histopathological evaluation in rabbits revealed renal crystal formation with degenerative and inflammatory changes. Identification of the components of these renal crystals revealed M1/3 and M5/6 metabolites. Accordingly, it was found that humans and rabbits showed significantly increased systemic exposure to these metabolites relative to other species. These main culprit insoluble metabolites were generated by aldehyde oxidase activity. Alternative dosing schedules of JNJ-3877605 and concomitant probenecid administration in rabbits failed to prevent renal toxicity at dose levels that could be pharmacologically active.Combined clinical and correlative preclinical studies suggest that renal toxicity of JNJ-38877605 is caused by the formation of species-specific insoluble metabolites. These observations preclude further clinical development of JNJ-38877605.


Lolkema M.P.,Phase I Unit | Lolkema M.P.,University Utrecht | Arkenau H.-T.,Phase I Unit | Harrington K.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: This study combined systemic administration of the oncolytic reovirus type 3 Dearing (reovirus) with chemotherapy in human subjects. We aimed to determine the safety and feasibility of combining reovirus administration with gemcitabine and to describe the effects of gemcitabine on the antireoviral immune response. Experimental Design: Patients received reovirus in various doses, initially we dosed for five consecutive days but this was poorly tolerated. We amended the protocol to administer a single dose and administered up to 3 × 1010 TCID50. Toxicity was assessed by monitoring of clinical and laboratory measurements. We assessed antibody response by cytotoxicity neutralization assay. Results: Sixteen patients received 47 cycles of reovirus. The two initial patients and one patient in the final cohort experienced dose limiting toxicity (DLT). The DLTs consisted of two asymptomatic grade 3 liver enzyme rises and one asymptomatic grade 3 troponin I rise. Common toxicities consisted of known reovirus and gemcitabine associated side effects. Further analysis showed a potential interaction between reovirus and gemcitabine in causing liver enzyme rises. Grade 3 rises in liver enzymes were associated with concomitant aminocetophen use. Importantly, the duration of the liver enzyme rise was short and reversible. Neutralizing antibody responses to reovirus were attenuated both in time-to-occurrence and peak height of the response. Conclusions: Reovirus at the dose of 1×1010 TCID 50 can be safely combined with full dose gemcitabine. Combination of reovirus with gemcitabine affects the neutralizing antibody response and this could impact both safety and efficacy of this treatment schedule. ©2010 AACR.

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