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Honolulu, HI, United States

Growth and progression of many cancer cells are mediated by alterations in the microenvironment often caused by an aberrant expression of growth factors and receptors. There is no report on expression of growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the experimental model, colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco2), that is commonly used in drug permeability assays. We hypothesize that in vitro, the Caco2 model is associated with a constitutive neo-expression of the hematopoietic G-CSF thereby causing an autocrine stimulation of Caco2 growth and proliferation in vitro. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed mRNA and protein expression of G-CSF in Caco2 cells using reverse transcriptase-PCR and SDS-PAGE. G-CSF mRNA and protein were detected in Caco2 cells. Expression of G-CSF protein was similar at different passages of this cell line. The expression of G-CSF has a significant role in the autocrine regulation of Caco2 cell growth and proliferation.


Sheshadri K.G.,PHASE 2 International
Man in India | Year: 2015

Rice is one of the natural Foods used by mankind from ancient times. Traditionally rice has been revered and has several rituals associated with its sowing, transplanting, harvesting, cleaning, cooking and other procedures. Some of these have been described in ancient Indian literature while other rituals and customs have been handed down through generations by the people working in the fields and also by Folklore. Although there exist several customs with regard to transplanting, harvesting and so on, the present paper focuses especially on rice cooking rituals as gleaned from literature beginning from Vedic times and upto tribal beliefs. These rituals are based on various rice preparations made for various religious ceremonies. © Serials Publications.


Rahvard M.M.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Tamizifar M.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Boutorabi S.M.A.,Iran University of Science and Technology | Gholami Shiri S.,Shiraz University | Gholami Shiri S.,PHASE 2 International
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

Three kinds of functionally graded rings using A390 as a base alloy and containing 0, 6 and 12wt%Mg were prepared by centrifugal casting, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated and compared. It is shown that the A390 ring without Mg content takes a characteristic of the primary Si particles distribution in the inner and outer layers. The 6%Mg ring reinforced by Si/Mg2Si particles has a different performance with its particles distribution only in the inner layer. Regarding the 12%Mg ring, the Mg2Si reinforced particle is distributed near the entire cross-section. It is demonstrated that the existence of the light in situ Mg2Si particles with lower density rather Al liquid makes changes to the gradient distribution of particles across the cross-section. Characteristics and distribution of the primary particles were assessed by the optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and image analyzer software. The hardness and wear rate along the thickness of samples were measured to investigate the variation in the mechanical properties corresponding to the variation in microstructure. Also, the worn surfaces of the material were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the dominant wear regime. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Sundararaman A.T.,PHASE 2 International
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2013

Visualization is an important technique for analysis of knowledge derived from text mining. While different approaches exist for visualization, this paper presents a novel way of visualizing the strength of association between multiple terms that summarizes association in the form of a matrix. This approach is expected to improve the way decision makers analyze insights from text mining. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Umesiri F.E.,University of Toledo | Sanki A.K.,PHASE 2 International | Boucau J.,Harvard University | Ronning D.R.,University of Toledo | Sucheck S.J.,University of Toledo
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2010

Drug-resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are increasing worldwide, underscoring the need to develop new drugs to treat the disease. One of the factors that make tuberculosis difficult to treat is the unique architecture of the mycobacterial cell wall. In this review, we catalogue the enzymes involved in the synthesis of the mycolylarabinogalactan (mAG), a key structural component of the mycobacterial cell wall. In addition, we review the enzymes required for the synthesis of the related lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a structure that possesses immunomodulatory properties. The integrity of the mAG and LAM is critical to the viability of mycobacteria, and many of the established antimycobacterial agents target enzymes critical to the synthesis of the mAG and LAM. Recently, new enzymes catalyzing synthetic steps in the synthesis of the mAG and LAM have been characterized and their substrate specificity determined. In this report, we review recent efforts to characterize the enzymes involved in mAG and LAM synthesis and describe the compounds used to inhibit the enzymes or characterize their catalytic activity. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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