Alexandria, Egypt

Pharos University in Alexandria جامعة فاروس بالإسكندرية is a non-governmental and profit making university in Alexandria, Egypt.Pharos University obtained the license from the Egyptian supreme council of private universities to operate in the academic year of 2006 / 2007. It includes eleven faculties:Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Dentistry, Engineering, Languages and translationFinancial and Administrative science, Legal Studies and international Relations, Tourism and Hotel management, Allied Medical science, Mass Communication, Physical Therapy, Arts and Design. Wikipedia.


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Daabiss M.A.,Pharos University in Alexandria
British Journal of Medical Practitioners | Year: 2016

Hypertensive emergencies involve a series of clinical presentations where uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) leads to progressive end-organ dysfunction affecting the neurological, cardiovascular, renal, or other organ systems. In these situations, the BP should be controlled over minutes to hours. Many causes are involved in severe elevation of blood pressure; inadequate treatment of hypertension, renal diseases, head trauma and pre-eclampsia. Intraoperative hypertension is also common and has many causes. It is usually successfully controlled by anaesthetists. However, there is a lack of agreement concerning treatment plans and appropriate therapeutic goals, making common management protocols difficult. A wide range of pharmacological alternatives are available to control blood pressure and reduce the risk of complications in these patients. This article reviews the perioperative hypertensive crisis and the common strategies used in management. Perioperative hypertension commonly occurs in patients undergoing surgery. Accurate adjustment of treatment and monitoring of patient’s response to therapy are essential to safe and effective management of perioperative hypertension. © 2016, JMN Medical Education Ltd. All rights reserved.


Elzoghby A.O.,Alexandria University | Helmy M.W.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Samy W.M.,Alexandria University | Samy W.M.,Beirut Arab University | Elgindy N.A.,Alexandria University
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics | Year: 2013

Novel casein (CAS)-based micelles loaded with the poorly soluble anti-cancer drug, flutamide (FLT), were successfully developed in a powdered form via spray-drying technique. Genipin (GNP) was used to crosslink CAS micelles as demonstrated by color variation of the micelles. Drug solubilization was enhanced by incorporation within the hydrophobic micellar core which was confirmed by solubility study and UV spectra. Spherical core-shell micelles were obtained with a particle size below 100 nm and zeta potential around -30 mV. At low drug loading, FLT was totally incorporated within micellar core as revealed by thermal analysis. However, at higher loading, excess non-incorporated drug at micelle surface caused a significant reduction in the surface charge density. Turbidity measurements demonstrated the high physical stability of micelles for 2 weeks dependent on GNP-crosslinking degree. In a dry powdered form, the micelles were stable for 6 months with no significant changes in drug content or particle size. A sustained drug release from CAS micelles up to 5 days was observed. After i.v. administration into rats, CAS micelles exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation of FLT compared to drug solution. Furthermore, a more prolonged drug systemic circulation was observed for GNP-crosslinked micelles. Overall, this study reports the application of spray-dried natural protein-based micelles for i.v. delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs such as FLT. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


El-Refaie W.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Elnaggar Y.S.R.,Alexandria University | El-Massik M.A.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Abdallah O.Y.,Alexandria University
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Abstract Purpose: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an imperative biomaterial with desirable rheological properties to alleviate symptoms of osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, scantly percutaeous permeation of this macromolecule handicaps its effective use for orthopedics and triggers intra-articular injection as the only surrogate. This study presents novel self-assembeld HA-based gel core elastic nanovesicles, (hyaluosomes; GC-HS), for non-invasive transdermal delivery of HA. Methods: GC-HS were prepared with 1% HA using simple film hydration technique. Their size, zeta potential, percentage entrapment efficiency (% EE), elasticity, and ex-vivo transdermal permeation were evaluated compared to conventional liposomes CL. Structure elucidation of the formed novel system was performed using light, polarizing and transmission electron microscopy. In-vivo permeation of GC-HS through knee joints of female Sprague Dawley rats was compared to CL and HA alone. Results: GC-HS showed nanosize (232.8 ± 7.2), high negative zeta potential (-45.1 ± 8.3) and higher elasticity (size alteration 5.43%) compared to CL. This novel system has self-penetration enhancing properties compared to CL and plain gel. GC-HS showed self-assembled properties and high physically stable for at least 6 months at 4°C. Ex-vivo permeation of HS was significantly higher than CL and plain HA gel alone. In-vivo study exhibited significant six folds increase in transdermal permeation of HA to knee joints from GC-HS compared to plain HA gel. Conclusion: Novel GC-HS are promising nanogels for topical management of osteoarthritis surrogating the need for intra-articular injection. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Masoud M.S.,Alexandria University | Abd El-Kaway M.Y.,Alexandria University | Abd El-Kaway M.Y.,Pharos University in Alexandria
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Copper guanine and barbital complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses and spectral measurements. The data typified the formation of stoichiometries 1:1 (M:L) with possible Cu-Cu interaction " association". The complexes are with different geometries: square planar, square pyramidal and tetrahedral. The mode of bonding was identified by IR spectra. EPR spectra of the powdered complexes were recorded at X band at the room temperature. Different ESR parameters were calculated and discussed: g //, g⊥, A//, 〈g〉, G, F, K, α2. Molecular modeling techniques and quantum chemical methods have been performed for copper complexes to correlate the chemical structures of the complexes with their physical molecular properties. Bond lengths, bond orders, bond angles, dihedral angles, close contact, dipole moment (μ), sum of the total negative charge (STNC), electronegativity (χ), chemical potential (Pi), global hardness (η), softness (σ), the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO) and the energy gap (ΔE) were calculated using PM3 semi-empirical and Molecular Mechanics (MM+) methods. The study displays a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental data which confirms the reliability of the quantum chemical methods. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wen M.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria
Discovery medicine | Year: 2011

Many therapeutic drugs are difficult to reach the central nervous system (CNS) from the systemic blood circulation because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) form a very effective barrier which prevents most molecules from passing through. To bypass BBB, drugs can be delivered through olfactory region for nose-to-brain targeting. Peptide and protein drugs have been developed for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. Drug delivery of these therapeutic proteins is facing several challenges because of the instability, high enzymatic metabolism, low gastrointestinal absorption, rapid renal elimination, and potential immunogenicity. New genetically engineered biotechnology products, such as recombinant human nerve growth factor, human VEGF, and interferons, are now possible to be delivered into the brain from the non-invasive intranasal route. For gene therapy, intranasal route is also a promising alternative method to deliver plasmid DNA to the brain. This review provides an overview of strategies to improve the drug delivery to the brain and the latest development of protein, peptide, and gene intranasal delivery for brain targeting.


Hazzaa R.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Hussein M.,Alexandria University
Environmental Technology and Innovation | Year: 2015

The use of agriculture solid waste as low-cost adsorbents is considered as an ecofriendly adsorbent due to their contribution in the reduction of costs for waste disposal. The present study investigates the adsorption efficiency of raw olive stone (OS) and activated carbon prepared from Egyptian olive stones (OSAC). Batch adsorption experiments were conducted under varying conditions of contact time, initial concentration of methylene blue dye (MB), adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature. The experimental equilibrium data were examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Harkins-Jura isotherms. The adsorption kinetic dye was analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion model. The results showed that the percentage of dye removal increased as the temperature increased but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be 5. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption MB onto OS and OSAC followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results indicated that olive stone activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Moussa S.A.,Pharos University in Alexandria
2015 IEEE Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, LISAT 2015 | Year: 2015

The advent of distributed generation (DG) units has posed many problems to the planning and operation of distribution networks (DS). The selection of the 'best' site for the DG installation is a major problem in this context. Different strategies and methods have been developed in the recent years which deal with this problem. However, Complexity of solutions and inadequate manipulation have hindered their utilization by DS planners. This paper presents a robust and practical tool which helps the distribution network planner in getting the best possible location of DG unit taking into account both reliability of supply and voltage sag problems. The method suggested uses knowledge-base expert system (ES) to help in selecting the appropriate locations. The method suggested is based on economic and technical considerations. It investigates with economic loss due to both voltage sag and forced outage of DS components. It concerns with the effect of location of the added DG on the overall network performance during both steady-state when a forced outage occurring on one or more component of the DS and transients after sudden short-circuit. Using ES avoids mathematical complications of solving complex analytical model. By judicious rule-base ES, selection of optimum locations becomes clear and simple. The suggested method is explained and implemented through practical distribution network and its effectiveness is tested and discussed. © 2015 IEEE.


Wen M.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria
Discovery medicine | Year: 2012

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a multifactorial nature due to the reduction in dopamine level in the brain. The projected number of people with Parkinson's disease is expected to increase mostly due to a greater aging population. Clinicians often face challenges in controlling the effective drug concentration in a patient's body to achieve therapeutic response throughout various stages of Parkinson's disease. To meet the therapeutic goals at different levels of Parkinson's progression, various dosage form approaches are used to enhance the delivery of anti-Parkinson's disease drugs into the brain. This review provides a summary on the available anti-Parkinson's disease drug dosage forms as well as the prototypes that are still under investigation through oral, transmucosal, transdermal, intranasal, pulmonary, rectal, and parenteral routes. These novel delivery systems will be extremely important in increasing therapeutic efficacy and reducing unwanted complications in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.


Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent successfully used in the treatment of a wide range of solid tumors, while its usage is limited due to its nephrotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of ginseng to ameliorate the renal nephrotoxicity, damage in kidney genomic DNA, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, tumor suppressor P53, histological changes and oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats. Cisplatin caused renal damage, including DNA fragmentation, upregulates gene expression of tumor suppressor protein p53 and tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6. Cisplatin increased the levels of kidney TBARS, xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, serum urea and creatinine. Cisplatin decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GST, GPX, CAT and SOD), ATPase and the levels of GSH. A microscopic examination showed that cisplatin caused kidney damage including vacuolization, severe necrosis and degenerative changes. Ginseng co-treatment with cisplatin reduced its renal damage, oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and induced DNA repair processes. Also, ginseng diminished p53 activation and improved renal cell apoptosis and nephrotoxicity. It can be concluded that, the protective effects of ginseng against cisplatin induced-renal damage was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress and the preservation of antioxidant enzymes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Elnaggar Y.S.R.,Alexandria University | El-Refaie W.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria | El-Massik M.A.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Abdallah O.Y.,Alexandria University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

Conventional carriers for skin delivery encounter obstacles of drug leakage, scanty permeation and low entrapment efficiency. Phospholipid nanogels have recently been recognized as prominent delivery systems to circumvent such obstacles and impart easier application. The current review provides an overview on different types of lecithin nanostructured gels, with particular emphasis on liposomal versus microemulsion gelled systems. Liposomal gels investigated encompassed classic liposomal hydrogel, modified liposomal gels (e.g. Transferosomal, Ethosomal, Pro-liposomal and Phytosomal gels), Microgel in liposomes (M-i-L) and Vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG). Microemulsion gelled systems encompassed Lecithin microemulsion-based organogels (LMBGs), Pluronic lecithin organogels (PLOs) and Lecithin-stabilized microemulsion-based hydrogels. All systems were reviewed regarding matrix composition, state of art, characterization and updated applications. Different classes of lecithin nanogels exhibited crucial impact on transdermal delivery regarding drug permeation, drug loading and stability aspects. Future perspectives of this theme issue are discussed based on current laboratory studies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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