Pharos University in Alexandria
Alexandria, Egypt

Pharos University in Alexandria جامعة فاروس بالإسكندرية is a non-governmental and profit making university in Alexandria, Egypt.Pharos University obtained the license from the Egyptian supreme council of private universities to operate in the academic year of 2006 / 2007. It includes eleven faculties:Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Dentistry, Engineering, Languages and translationFinancial and Administrative science, Legal Studies and international Relations, Tourism and Hotel management, Allied Medical science, Mass Communication, Physical Therapy, Arts and Design. Wikipedia.

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El-Gowelli H.M.,Alexandria University | Helmy M.W.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Ali R.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria | El-Mas M.M.,Alexandria University
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ETB receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β1, TGF-β1). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ETB receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ETB receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ETB receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Nasr M.,Alexandria University | Selima E.,Alexandria University | Hamed O.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Kazem A.,Alexandria University
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

No effective chemopreventive agent has been approved against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to date. Since HCC is one of the hypervascular solid tumors, blocking angiogenesis represents an intriguing approach to HCC chemoprevention. The aim of the current study was to examine the combined effect of the anti-angiogenic agents: leflunomide; a disease modifying antirheumatic drug, perindopril; an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and curcumin; the active principle of turmeric, on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC in mice. Eight weeks following DEN administration, there was a significant rise in immunohistochemical staining of CD31-positive endothelial cells and consequently hepatic microvessel density (MVD) as compared to normal liver. DEN treatment was associated with elevation in hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level as compared to normal controls (P<0.05, 3842±72 pg/ml and 2520.8±97 pg/ml, respectively). Similarly, increased hepatic expression of hypoxia inducible growth factor-1α (HIF-1α) was observed in 100% of the DEN-treated animals compared to 0% in their normal counterparts. Treatment with leflunomide, perindopril or curcumin alone abrogated the DEN-induced increased MVD as well as the elevated expression of VEGF, while only curcumin inhibited HIF-1α hepatic expression. Combination of these agents showed further inhibitory action on neovascularization and synergistic attenuation of hepatic VEGF (1954.27±115 pg/ml) when compared to each single agent. Histopathological examination revealed a more beneficial chemopreventive activity in the combination group compared to each monotherapy. In conclusion, the combination treatment of leflunomide, perindopril and curcumin targeting different angiogenic pathways, resulted in synergistic inhibition of angiogenesis and consequently more effective chemoprevention of HCC. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Abdel-Latif M.S.,Pharos University in Alexandria
Open Microbiology Journal | Year: 2015

Background: In chronic HCV infection, pathological accumulation of the extracellular matrix is the main feature of liver fibrosis; that indicates the imbalanced rate of increased matrix synthesis to decreased breakdown of connective tissue proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in remodeling of extracellular matrix. It is known that expression of MMPs is regulated by Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Also, levels of TNF-α in liver and serum are increased in chronic HCV patient. Accordingly, this study aimed to correlate the plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α in chronic HCV patients with the pathogenesis of the liver. Methods: The current study was conducted on 15 fibrotic liver cases with detectable HCV RNA, 10 HCV cirrhotic liver cases, and 15 control subjects of matched age and sex. Plasma MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α were measured by ELISA. Results: Data revealed that the MMP2, MMP9 and TNF-α levels showed a significant elevation in chronic HCV patients compared to control group (p= 0.001). But, no significant correlation was observed in levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TNF-α between fibrotic and cirrhotic cases. Conclusions: MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α showed high reproducibility to differentiate chronic HCV patients from control group. On the contrary, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α were not able to differentiate fibrotic from cirrhotic liver cases. Thus, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-α could not be correlated with the progression of liver disease. Rather they could be used as prognostic markers of liver fibrosis. © 2015, Mohamed S. Abdel-Latif; Licensee Bentham Open.

El-Zahaby S.A.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Kassem A.A.,Pharos University in Alexandria | El-Kamel A.H.,Alexandria University
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal | Year: 2014

Gastroretentive levofloxacin (LVF) floating mini-tablets for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were prepared using the matrix forming polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100M), alone or with Carbopol 940P in different ratios by wet granulation technique. Buoyancy of mini-tablets was achieved by an addition of an effervescent mixture consisting of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid to some formulations. The prepared mini-tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, friability, hardness, drug content, in vitro buoyancy, water uptake and in vitro release. The optimized formula was subjected to further studies: FT-IR, DSC analysis and in vivo examination in healthy volunteers. The prepared mini-tablets exhibited satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Incorporation of gas-generating agent improved the floating parameters. HPMC K100M mini-tablet formulation (F1) offered the best controlled drug release (>8 h) along with floating lag time <1 s and total floating time >24 h. The obtained DSC thermograms and FT-IR charts indicated that there is no positive evidence for the interaction between LVF and ingredients of the optimized formula. The in vivo test confirmed the success of the optimized formula F1 in being retained in the stomach of the volunteers for more than 4 h. LVF floating mini-tablets based on HPMC K100M is a promising formulation for eradication of H. pylori. © 2014 King Saud University.

The electrochemical synthesis of poly(4-aminomethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl pyridine-3-ol) on steel and copper electrodes was achieved in both sulfuric acid and oxalic acid by cyclic voltammetry technique. Characterization of the polymer films were achieved by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Corrosion performance of coatings was investigated in 0.1 M H2SO4 by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance (EIS) spectroscopy techniques. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Wen M.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria
Discovery medicine | Year: 2011

Many therapeutic drugs are difficult to reach the central nervous system (CNS) from the systemic blood circulation because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) form a very effective barrier which prevents most molecules from passing through. To bypass BBB, drugs can be delivered through olfactory region for nose-to-brain targeting. Peptide and protein drugs have been developed for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. Drug delivery of these therapeutic proteins is facing several challenges because of the instability, high enzymatic metabolism, low gastrointestinal absorption, rapid renal elimination, and potential immunogenicity. New genetically engineered biotechnology products, such as recombinant human nerve growth factor, human VEGF, and interferons, are now possible to be delivered into the brain from the non-invasive intranasal route. For gene therapy, intranasal route is also a promising alternative method to deliver plasmid DNA to the brain. This review provides an overview of strategies to improve the drug delivery to the brain and the latest development of protein, peptide, and gene intranasal delivery for brain targeting.

Hazzaa R.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Hussein M.,Alexandria University
Environmental Technology and Innovation | Year: 2015

The use of agriculture solid waste as low-cost adsorbents is considered as an ecofriendly adsorbent due to their contribution in the reduction of costs for waste disposal. The present study investigates the adsorption efficiency of raw olive stone (OS) and activated carbon prepared from Egyptian olive stones (OSAC). Batch adsorption experiments were conducted under varying conditions of contact time, initial concentration of methylene blue dye (MB), adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature. The experimental equilibrium data were examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Harkins-Jura isotherms. The adsorption kinetic dye was analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion model. The results showed that the percentage of dye removal increased as the temperature increased but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be 5. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption MB onto OS and OSAC followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results indicated that olive stone activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Wen M.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria
Discovery medicine | Year: 2012

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a multifactorial nature due to the reduction in dopamine level in the brain. The projected number of people with Parkinson's disease is expected to increase mostly due to a greater aging population. Clinicians often face challenges in controlling the effective drug concentration in a patient's body to achieve therapeutic response throughout various stages of Parkinson's disease. To meet the therapeutic goals at different levels of Parkinson's progression, various dosage form approaches are used to enhance the delivery of anti-Parkinson's disease drugs into the brain. This review provides a summary on the available anti-Parkinson's disease drug dosage forms as well as the prototypes that are still under investigation through oral, transmucosal, transdermal, intranasal, pulmonary, rectal, and parenteral routes. These novel delivery systems will be extremely important in increasing therapeutic efficacy and reducing unwanted complications in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent successfully used in the treatment of a wide range of solid tumors, while its usage is limited due to its nephrotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of ginseng to ameliorate the renal nephrotoxicity, damage in kidney genomic DNA, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, tumor suppressor P53, histological changes and oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats. Cisplatin caused renal damage, including DNA fragmentation, upregulates gene expression of tumor suppressor protein p53 and tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6. Cisplatin increased the levels of kidney TBARS, xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, serum urea and creatinine. Cisplatin decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GST, GPX, CAT and SOD), ATPase and the levels of GSH. A microscopic examination showed that cisplatin caused kidney damage including vacuolization, severe necrosis and degenerative changes. Ginseng co-treatment with cisplatin reduced its renal damage, oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation and induced DNA repair processes. Also, ginseng diminished p53 activation and improved renal cell apoptosis and nephrotoxicity. It can be concluded that, the protective effects of ginseng against cisplatin induced-renal damage was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress and the preservation of antioxidant enzymes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Elnaggar Y.S.R.,Alexandria University | El-Refaie W.M.,Pharos University in Alexandria | El-Massik M.A.,Pharos University in Alexandria | Abdallah O.Y.,Alexandria University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

Conventional carriers for skin delivery encounter obstacles of drug leakage, scanty permeation and low entrapment efficiency. Phospholipid nanogels have recently been recognized as prominent delivery systems to circumvent such obstacles and impart easier application. The current review provides an overview on different types of lecithin nanostructured gels, with particular emphasis on liposomal versus microemulsion gelled systems. Liposomal gels investigated encompassed classic liposomal hydrogel, modified liposomal gels (e.g. Transferosomal, Ethosomal, Pro-liposomal and Phytosomal gels), Microgel in liposomes (M-i-L) and Vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG). Microemulsion gelled systems encompassed Lecithin microemulsion-based organogels (LMBGs), Pluronic lecithin organogels (PLOs) and Lecithin-stabilized microemulsion-based hydrogels. All systems were reviewed regarding matrix composition, state of art, characterization and updated applications. Different classes of lecithin nanogels exhibited crucial impact on transdermal delivery regarding drug permeation, drug loading and stability aspects. Future perspectives of this theme issue are discussed based on current laboratory studies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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