PharmPoint Consulting

Poolesville, MD, United States

PharmPoint Consulting

Poolesville, MD, United States
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Wang H.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Mattes W.B.,PharmPoint Consulting | Richter P.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Mendrick D.L.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR)
Biomarkers in Medicine | Year: 2012

Smoking is known to cause serious lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, obstruction of small airways, emphysema and cancer. Tobacco smoke is a complex chemical aerosol containing at least 8000 chemical constituents, either tobacco derived or added by tobacco product manufacturers. Identification of all of the toxic agents in tobacco smoke is challenging, and efforts to understand the mechanisms by which tobacco use causes disease will be informed by new biomarkers of exposure and harm. In 2009, President Obama signed into law the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act granting the US FDA the authority to regulate tobacco products to protect public health. This perspective article presents the background, rationale and strategy for using omics technologies to develop new biomarkers, which may be of interest to the FDA when implementing the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.


Buzatu D.A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Moskal T.J.,Vivione Biosciences | Williams A.J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Cooper W.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Foodborne illnesses occur in both industrialized and developing countries, and may be increasing due to rapidly evolving food production practices. Yet some primary tools used to assess food safety are decades, if not centuries, old. To improve the time to result for food safety assessment a sensitive flow cytometer based system to detect microbial contamination was developed. By eliminating background fluorescence and improving signal to noise the assays accurately measure bacterial load or specifically identify pathogens. These assays provide results in minutes or, if sensitivity to one cell in a complex matrix is required, after several hours enrichment. Conventional assessments of food safety require 48 to 56 hours. The assays described within are linear over 5 orders of magnitude with results identical to culture plates, and report live and dead microorganisms. This system offers a powerful approach to real-time assessment of food safety, useful for industry self-monitoring and regulatory inspection.


Mattes W.,PharmPoint Consulting | Davis K.,Toxicologic Pathology Associates | Fabian E.,BASF | Greenhaw J.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | And 12 more authors.
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2014

While conventional parameters used to detect hepatotoxicity in drug safety assessment studies are generally informative, the need remains for parameters that can detect the potential for hepatotoxicity at lower doses and/or at earlier time points. Previous work has shown that metabolite profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics) can detect signals of potential hepatotoxicity in rats treated with doxorubicin at doses that do not elicit hepatotoxicity as monitored with conventional parameters. The current study extended this observation to the question of whether such signals could be detected in rats treated with compounds that can elicit hepatotoxicity in humans (i.e., drug-induced liver injury, DILI) but have not been reported to do so in rats. Nine compounds were selected on the basis of their known DILI potential, with six other compounds chosen as negative for DILI potential. A database of rat plasma metabolite profiles, MetaMap®Tox (developed by metanomics GmbH and BASF SE) was used for both metabolite profiles and mode of action (MoA) metabolite signatures for a number of known toxicities. Eight of the nine compounds with DILI potential elicited metabolite profiles that matched with MoA patterns of various rat liver toxicities, including cholestasis, oxidative stress, acetaminophen-type toxicity and peroxisome proliferation. By contrast, only one of the six non-DILI compounds showed a weak match with rat liver toxicity. These results suggest that metabolite profiling may indeed have promise to detect signals of hepatotoxicity in rats treated with compounds having DILI potential. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Kamp H.,BASF | Fabian E.,BASF | Groeters S.,BASF | Herold M.,Metanomics Health GmbH | And 10 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

BASF and Metanomics have built-up the database MetaMap®-Tox containing rat plasma metabolome data for more than 500 reference compounds. Phenytoin was administered to five Wistar rats of both sexes at dietary dose levels of 600 and 2400 ppm over 28 days and metabolome analysis was performed on days 7, 14 and 28. Clinical pathology did not indicate clear evidence for liver toxicity, whereas liver histopathology revealed slight centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy. The metabolome analysis of phenytoin shows metabolome changes at both dose levels and the comparison with MetaMap-Tox indicated strong evidence for liver enzyme induction, as well as liver toxicity. Moreover, evidence for kidney and indirect thyroid effects were observed. This assessment was based on the metabolite changes induced, similarities to specific toxicity patterns and the whole metabolome correlation within MetaMap-Tox. As compared with the classical read-out, a more comprehensive picture of phenytoins effects is obtained from the metabolome analysis, demonstrating the added value of metabolome data in preclinical/toxicological studies. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Mattes W.B.,PharmPoint Consulting | Kamp H.G.,BASF | Fabian E.,BASF | Herold M.,Metanomics GmbH | And 15 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

Addressing safety concerns such as drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) early in the drug pharmaceutical development process ensures both patient safety and efficient clinical development. We describe a unique adjunct to standard safety assessment wherein the metabolite profile of treated animals is compared with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database in order to predict the potential for a wide variety of adverse events, including DIKI. To examine this approach, a study of five compounds (phenytoin, cyclosporin A, doxorubicin, captopril, and lisinopril) was initiated by the Technology Evaluation Consortium under the auspices of the Drug Safety Executive Council (DSEC). The metabolite profiles for rats treated with these compounds matched established reference patterns in the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database indicative of each compound's well-described clinical toxicities. For example, the DIKI associated with cyclosporine A and doxorubicin was correctly predicted by metabolite profiling, while no evidence for DIKI was found for phenytoin, consistent with its clinical picture. In some cases the clinical toxicity (hepatotoxicity), not generally seen in animal studies, was detected with MetaMap Tox. Thus metabolite profiling coupled with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database offers a unique and powerful approach for augmenting safety assessment and avoiding clinical adverse events such as DIKI. © 2013 W. B. Mattes et al.


Weng Z.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Luo Y.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Yang X.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Greenhaw J.J.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2015

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved by regulatory agencies for cancer treatment, albeit with strong warnings of severe hepatotoxicity included in the product label. The basis of this toxicity is unknown; one possible mechanism, that of mitochondrial damage, was tested. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, regorafenib directly uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoted calcium overload-induced swelling, which were respectively prevented by the recoupler 6-ketocholestanol (KC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore blocker cyclosporine A (CsA). In primary hepatocytes, regorafenib uncoupled OXPHOS, disrupted mitochondrial inner membrane potential (MMP), and decreased cellular ATP at 1 h, and triggered MPT at 3. h, which was followed by necrosis but not apoptosis at 7 h and 24 h, all of which were abrogated by KC. The combination of the glycolysis enhancer fructose plus the mitochondrial ATPase synthase inhibitor oligomycin A abolished regorafenib induced necrosis at 7. h. This effect was not seen at 24. h nor with the fructose or oligomycin A separately. CsA in combination with trifluoperazine, both MPT blockers, showed similar effects. Two compensatory mechanisms, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to ameliorate ATP shortage and induction of autophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria, were found to be mobilized. Hepatocyte necrosis was enhanced either by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, while autophagy inducer rapamycin was strongly cytoprotective. Remarkably, all toxic effects were observed at clinically-relevant concentrations of 2.5-15 μM. These data suggest that uncoupling of OXPHOS and the resulting ATP shortage and MPT induction are the key mechanisms for regorafenib induced hepatocyte injury, and AMPK activation and autophagy induction serve as pro-survival pathways against such toxicity. © 2014.


Weng Z.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Zhou P.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Salminen W.F.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Salminen W.F.,Parexel International | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major flavonoid in green tea, is consumed via tea products and dietary supplements, and has been tested in clinical trials. However, EGCG can cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals by unknown mechanisms. Here EGCG effects on rat liver mitochondria were examined. EGCG showed negligible effects on oxidative phosphorylation at 7.5-100 μM in normal mitochondria. However, respiratory chain complexes (RCCs) were profoundly inhibited by EGCG in mitochondria undergoing Ca2+ overload-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). As RCCs are located in mitochondrial inner membranes (IM) and matrix, it was reasoned that EGCG could not readily pass through IM to affect RCCs in normal mitochondria but may do so when IM integrity is compromised. This speculation was substantiated in three ways. (1) Purified EGCG-bound proteins were barely detectable in normal mitochondria and contained no RCCs as determined by Western blotting, but swelling mitochondria contained about 1.5-fold more EGCG-bound proteins which included four RCC subunits together with cyclophilin D that locates in mitochondrial matrix. (2) Swelling mitochondria consumed more EGCG than normal ones. (3) The MPT blocker cyclosporine A diminished the above-mentioned difference. Among four subunits of RCC II, only SDHA and SDHB which locate in mitochondrial matrix, but not SDHC or SDHD which insert into the IM, were found to be EGCG targets. Interestingly, EGCG promoted Ca2+ overload-induced MPT only when moderate MPT already commenced. This study identified hepatic RCCs as targets for EGCG in swelling but not normal mitochondria, suggesting EGCG may trigger hepatotoxicity by worsening pre-existing mitochondria abnormalities. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) and PharmPoint Consulting
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2014

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major flavonoid in green tea, is consumed via tea products and dietary supplements, and has been tested in clinical trials. However, EGCG can cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals by unknown mechanisms. Here EGCG effects on rat liver mitochondria were examined. EGCG showed negligible effects on oxidative phosphorylation at 7.5-100M in normal mitochondria. However, respiratory chain complexes (RCCs) were profoundly inhibited by EGCG in mitochondria undergoing Ca(2+) overload-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). As RCCs are located in mitochondrial inner membranes (IM) and matrix, it was reasoned that EGCG could not readily pass through IM to affect RCCs in normal mitochondria but may do so when IM integrity is compromised. This speculation was substantiated in three ways. (1) Purified EGCG-bound proteins were barely detectable in normal mitochondria and contained no RCCs as determined by Western blotting, but swelling mitochondria contained about 1.5-fold more EGCG-bound proteins which included four RCC subunits together with cyclophilin D that locates in mitochondrial matrix. (2) Swelling mitochondria consumed more EGCG than normal ones. (3) The MPT blocker cyclosporine A diminished the above-mentioned difference. Among four subunits of RCC II, only SDHA and SDHB which locate in mitochondrial matrix, but not SDHC or SDHD which insert into the IM, were found to be EGCG targets. Interestingly, EGCG promoted Ca(2+) overload-induced MPT only when moderate MPT already commenced. This study identified hepatic RCCs as targets for EGCG in swelling but not normal mitochondria, suggesting EGCG may trigger hepatotoxicity by worsening pre-existing mitochondria abnormalities.


PubMed | PharmPoint Consulting
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2013

Addressing safety concerns such as drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) early in the drug pharmaceutical development process ensures both patient safety and efficient clinical development. We describe a unique adjunct to standard safety assessment wherein the metabolite profile of treated animals is compared with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database in order to predict the potential for a wide variety of adverse events, including DIKI. To examine this approach, a study of five compounds (phenytoin, cyclosporin A, doxorubicin, captopril, and lisinopril) was initiated by the Technology Evaluation Consortium under the auspices of the Drug Safety Executive Council (DSEC). The metabolite profiles for rats treated with these compounds matched established reference patterns in the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database indicative of each compounds well-described clinical toxicities. For example, the DIKI associated with cyclosporine A and doxorubicin was correctly predicted by metabolite profiling, while no evidence for DIKI was found for phenytoin, consistent with its clinical picture. In some cases the clinical toxicity (hepatotoxicity), not generally seen in animal studies, was detected with MetaMap Tox. Thus metabolite profiling coupled with the MetaMap Tox metabolomics database offers a unique and powerful approach for augmenting safety assessment and avoiding clinical adverse events such as DIKI.

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