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Wang H.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Mattes W.B.,PharmPoint Consulting | Richter P.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Mendrick D.L.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR)
Biomarkers in Medicine | Year: 2012

Smoking is known to cause serious lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, obstruction of small airways, emphysema and cancer. Tobacco smoke is a complex chemical aerosol containing at least 8000 chemical constituents, either tobacco derived or added by tobacco product manufacturers. Identification of all of the toxic agents in tobacco smoke is challenging, and efforts to understand the mechanisms by which tobacco use causes disease will be informed by new biomarkers of exposure and harm. In 2009, President Obama signed into law the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act granting the US FDA the authority to regulate tobacco products to protect public health. This perspective article presents the background, rationale and strategy for using omics technologies to develop new biomarkers, which may be of interest to the FDA when implementing the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Weng Z.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Luo Y.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Yang X.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Greenhaw J.J.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | And 6 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2015

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved by regulatory agencies for cancer treatment, albeit with strong warnings of severe hepatotoxicity included in the product label. The basis of this toxicity is unknown; one possible mechanism, that of mitochondrial damage, was tested. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, regorafenib directly uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoted calcium overload-induced swelling, which were respectively prevented by the recoupler 6-ketocholestanol (KC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore blocker cyclosporine A (CsA). In primary hepatocytes, regorafenib uncoupled OXPHOS, disrupted mitochondrial inner membrane potential (MMP), and decreased cellular ATP at 1 h, and triggered MPT at 3. h, which was followed by necrosis but not apoptosis at 7 h and 24 h, all of which were abrogated by KC. The combination of the glycolysis enhancer fructose plus the mitochondrial ATPase synthase inhibitor oligomycin A abolished regorafenib induced necrosis at 7. h. This effect was not seen at 24. h nor with the fructose or oligomycin A separately. CsA in combination with trifluoperazine, both MPT blockers, showed similar effects. Two compensatory mechanisms, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to ameliorate ATP shortage and induction of autophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria, were found to be mobilized. Hepatocyte necrosis was enhanced either by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, while autophagy inducer rapamycin was strongly cytoprotective. Remarkably, all toxic effects were observed at clinically-relevant concentrations of 2.5-15 μM. These data suggest that uncoupling of OXPHOS and the resulting ATP shortage and MPT induction are the key mechanisms for regorafenib induced hepatocyte injury, and AMPK activation and autophagy induction serve as pro-survival pathways against such toxicity. © 2014. Source

Weng Z.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Zhou P.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Salminen W.F.,National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) | Salminen W.F.,Parexel International | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major flavonoid in green tea, is consumed via tea products and dietary supplements, and has been tested in clinical trials. However, EGCG can cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals by unknown mechanisms. Here EGCG effects on rat liver mitochondria were examined. EGCG showed negligible effects on oxidative phosphorylation at 7.5-100 μM in normal mitochondria. However, respiratory chain complexes (RCCs) were profoundly inhibited by EGCG in mitochondria undergoing Ca2+ overload-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). As RCCs are located in mitochondrial inner membranes (IM) and matrix, it was reasoned that EGCG could not readily pass through IM to affect RCCs in normal mitochondria but may do so when IM integrity is compromised. This speculation was substantiated in three ways. (1) Purified EGCG-bound proteins were barely detectable in normal mitochondria and contained no RCCs as determined by Western blotting, but swelling mitochondria contained about 1.5-fold more EGCG-bound proteins which included four RCC subunits together with cyclophilin D that locates in mitochondrial matrix. (2) Swelling mitochondria consumed more EGCG than normal ones. (3) The MPT blocker cyclosporine A diminished the above-mentioned difference. Among four subunits of RCC II, only SDHA and SDHB which locate in mitochondrial matrix, but not SDHC or SDHD which insert into the IM, were found to be EGCG targets. Interestingly, EGCG promoted Ca2+ overload-induced MPT only when moderate MPT already commenced. This study identified hepatic RCCs as targets for EGCG in swelling but not normal mitochondria, suggesting EGCG may trigger hepatotoxicity by worsening pre-existing mitochondria abnormalities. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kamp H.,BASF | Fabian E.,BASF | Groeters S.,BASF | Herold M.,Metanomics Health GmbH | And 10 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

BASF and Metanomics have built-up the database MetaMap®-Tox containing rat plasma metabolome data for more than 500 reference compounds. Phenytoin was administered to five Wistar rats of both sexes at dietary dose levels of 600 and 2400 ppm over 28 days and metabolome analysis was performed on days 7, 14 and 28. Clinical pathology did not indicate clear evidence for liver toxicity, whereas liver histopathology revealed slight centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy. The metabolome analysis of phenytoin shows metabolome changes at both dose levels and the comparison with MetaMap-Tox indicated strong evidence for liver enzyme induction, as well as liver toxicity. Moreover, evidence for kidney and indirect thyroid effects were observed. This assessment was based on the metabolite changes induced, similarities to specific toxicity patterns and the whole metabolome correlation within MetaMap-Tox. As compared with the classical read-out, a more comprehensive picture of phenytoins effects is obtained from the metabolome analysis, demonstrating the added value of metabolome data in preclinical/toxicological studies. © 2012 Future Science Ltd. Source

Buzatu D.A.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Moskal T.J.,Vivione Biosciences | Williams A.J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Cooper W.M.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Foodborne illnesses occur in both industrialized and developing countries, and may be increasing due to rapidly evolving food production practices. Yet some primary tools used to assess food safety are decades, if not centuries, old. To improve the time to result for food safety assessment a sensitive flow cytometer based system to detect microbial contamination was developed. By eliminating background fluorescence and improving signal to noise the assays accurately measure bacterial load or specifically identify pathogens. These assays provide results in minutes or, if sensitivity to one cell in a complex matrix is required, after several hours enrichment. Conventional assessments of food safety require 48 to 56 hours. The assays described within are linear over 5 orders of magnitude with results identical to culture plates, and report live and dead microorganisms. This system offers a powerful approach to real-time assessment of food safety, useful for industry self-monitoring and regulatory inspection. Source

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