PharmInVivo Ltd

Pécs, Hungary

PharmInVivo Ltd

Pécs, Hungary
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Pozsgai G.,University of Pécs | Hajna Z.,University of Pécs | Bagoly T.,University of Pécs | Boros M.,University of Pécs | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels on capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons causes release of inflammatory neuropeptides, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). We investigated whether the hydrogen sulphide (H2S)-evoked CGRP release from sensory neurons of isolated rat tracheae and H2S-induced increases in the microcirculation of the mouse ear were mediated by TRPA1 receptor activation. Allylisothiocyanate (AITC) or the H2S donor sodium hydrogen sulphide (NaHS) were used as stimuli and CGRP release of the rat tracheae was measured by radioimmunoassay. AITC or NaHS were applied to the ears of Balb/c, C57BL/6, TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptor gene knockout mice and blood flow was detected by laser Doppler imaging. Both AITC and NaHS increased CGRP release from isolated rat tracheae, and both responses were inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031, but was not affected by the TRPV1 receptor blocker, BCTC. Application of AITC or NaHS increased the cutaneous blood flow in the mouse ears. Similarly to the effect of AITC, the vasodilatory response to NaHS was reduced by HC-030031 or in TRPA1 deleted mice. In contrast, genetic deletion of TRPV1 did not affect the increase in the ear blood flow evoked by AITC or NaHS. We conclude that H2S activates TRPA1 receptors causing CGRP release from sensory nerves of rat tracheae, as well as inducing cutaneous vasodilatation in the mouse ear. TRPV1 receptors were not involved in these processes. Our results highlight that TRPA1 receptor activation should be considered as a potential mechanism of vasoactive effects of H2S. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kormos V.,University of Pécs | Gaspar L.,University of Pécs | Kovacs L.A.,University of Pécs | Farkas J.,University of Pécs | And 13 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in stress adaptation with potential relevance in mood disorder management. PACAP deficient (KO) mice on CD1 background were shown to have depression-like phenotype. Here we aimed at investigating effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts. We hypothesized reduced FosB neuronal activity in stress-related centers, altered activity and peptide/neurotransmitter content of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cells of the oval (ovBST) bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), urocortin 1 (Ucn1) neurons of centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (cpEW) and serotonin (5HT) cells of dorsal raphe (DR) in PACAP deficiency. CVMS caused decreased body weight and increased adrenal size, corticosterone (CORT) titers and depression-like behavior in WT mice, in contrast to KO animals. CVMS increased FosB in the central (CeA) and medial amygdala, dorsomedial (dmBST), ventral (vBST), ovBST, CA1 area, dentate gyrus (DG), ventral lateral septum, parvo- (pPVN) and magnocellular paraventricular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray, cpEW and DR. Lack of PACAP blunted the CVMS-induced FosB rise in the CeA, ovBST, dmBST, vBST, CA1 area, pPVN and DR. The CVMS-induced FosB expression in ovBST-CRF and cpEW-Ucn1 neurons was abolished in KO mice. Although CVMS did not induce FosB in 5HT-DR neurons, PACAP KO mice had increased 5HT cell counts and 5HT content. We conclude that PACAP deficiency affects neuronal reactivity in a brain area-specific manner in stress centers, as well as in ovBST-CRF, cpEW-Ucn1 and 5HT-DR neurons leading to reduced CVMS response and altered depression level. © 2016 IBRO.

Markovics A.,University of Pécs | Szoke E.,University of Pécs | Sandor K.,University of Pécs | Borzsei R.,University of Pécs | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2012

We showed that somatostatin (SST) exerts antiinflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects through somatostatin receptor subtypes 4 and 1 (sst4/sst1). Since cortistatin (CST) is a structurally similar peptide, we aimed at comparing the sst1- and sst 4-binding and activating abilities, as well as the effects of SST-14 and CST-14 on inflammatory and nociceptive processes. CST-14 concentrationdependently displaced radiolabeled SST-14 binding, induced similar sst1 and sst4-activation with a less potency, and exerted significantly greater inhibitory effect on endotoxin-stimulated interleukin (IL)-1β production of murine peritoneal macrophages. Capsaicin-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release from peripheral sensory nerve terminals of isolated rat tracheae was significantly decreased by 2 μM CST and 100 nM SST, but concentration-response correlation was not found. Mustard oil-evoked acute neurogenic plasma protein extravasation in the rat hindpaw skin, carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema, mechanical hyperalgesia, and IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α production, as well as mild heat injury-evoked thermal hyperalgesia were similarly attenuated by both peptides. In the latter case, and i.p. injections exerted equal inhibitory actions. CST-14 and SST-14 similarly diminish both acute neurogenic and cellular inflammatory processes, as well as mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, in which their inhibitory effect on sensory nerve endings is likely to be involved. However, CST-14 exerts remarkably greater inhibition on cytokine production. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Csabai D.,University of Pécs | Cseko K.,University of Pécs | Szaiff L.,University of Pécs | Varga Z.,University of Pécs | And 4 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2016

Previous data have shown that high dose of nicotine administration or tobacco smoke exposure can reduce cell formation and the survival rate of adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus. Here, we subjected adult mice to low intensity cigarette smoke exposure over long time periods. We did a 2 ×. 30 min/day smoke exposure with two cigarettes per occasion over 1- or 2-months. Subsequently, we carried out a systematic quantitative histopathological analysis to assess the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. To investigate cell proliferation, the exogenous marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered on the last experimental day and animals were sacrificed 2 h later. To investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on the population of immature neurons, we quantified the number of doublecortin-positive (DCX+) neurons in the same animals. We found that exposing animals to cigarette smoke for 1- or 2-months had no influence on cell proliferation rate, but significantly reduced the number of DCX-positive immature neurons. Our tobacco smoke exposure regimen caused no substantial changes in respiratory functions, but histopathological analysis of the pulmonary tissue revealed a marked perivascular/peribronchial edema formation after 1-month and signs of chronic pulmonary inflammation after 2-months of cigarette smoke exposure. These data demonstrate that even mild exposure to cigarette smoke, without significantly affecting respiratory functions, can have a negative effect on adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus, when applied over longer time periods. Our data indicate that besides nicotine other factors, such as inflammatory mediators, may also contribute to this effect. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Borbely E.,University of Pécs | Botz B.,University of Pécs | Bolcskei K.,University of Pécs | Kenyer T.,University of Pécs | And 11 more authors.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity | Year: 2015

Objective: The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis is a widely-used translational mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immunological components have thoroughly been investigated. In contrast, little is known about the role of sensory neural factors and the complexity of neuro-immune interactions. Therefore, we analyzed the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves in autoantibody-induced arthritis with integrative methodology. Methods: Arthritogenic K/BxN or control serum was injected to non-pretreated mice or resiniferatoxin (RTX)-pretreated animals where capsaicin-sensitive nerves were inactivated. Edema, touch sensitivity, noxious heat threshold, joint function, body weight and clinical arthritis severity scores were determined repeatedly throughout two weeks. Micro-CT and in vivo optical imaging to determine matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, semiquantitative histopathological scoring and radioimmunoassay to measure somatostatin in the joint homogenates were also performed. Results: In RTX-pretreated mice, the autoantibody-induced joint swelling, arthritis severity score, MMP and MPO activities, as well as histopathological alterations were significantly greater compared to non-pretreated animals. Self-control quantification of the bone mass revealed decreased values in intact female mice, but significantly greater arthritis-induced pathological bone formation after RTX-pretreatment. In contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia from day 10 was smaller after inactivating capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Although thermal hyperalgesia did not develop, noxious heat threshold was significantly higher following RTX pretreatment. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity elevated in the tibiotarsal joints in non-pretreated, which was significantly less in RTX-pretreated mice. Conclusions: Although capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the later phase of autoantibody-induced chronic arthritis, they play important anti-inflammatory roles at least partially through somatostatin release. © 2014 The Authors.

Markovics A.,University of Pécs | Kormos V.,University of Pécs | Gaszner B.,University of Pécs | Lashgarara A.,University of Pécs | And 15 more authors.
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2012

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors (PAC1, VPAC) are present in sensory neurons and vascular smooth muscle. PACAP infusion was found to trigger migraine-like headache in humans and we showed its central pro-nociceptive function in several mouse pain models. Nitroglycerol (NTG)-induced pathophysiological changes were investigated in this study in PACAP gene-deleted (PACAP -/-) and wildtype (PACAP +/+) mice. Chemical activation of the trigeminovascular system was induced by 10mg/kg i.p. NTG. Light-aversive behavior was determined in a light-dark box, meningeal microcirculation by laser Doppler blood perfusion scanning and the early neuronal activation marker c-Fos with immunohistochemistry. NTG-induced photophobia both in the early (0-30min) and late phases (90-120min) due to direct vasodilation and trigeminal sensitization, respectively, was significantly reduced in PACAP -/- mice. Meningeal blood flow increased by 30-35% during 4h in PACAP +/+ mice, but only a 5-10% elevation occurred from the second hour in PACAP -/- ones. The number of c-Fos expressing cells referring to neuronal activation in the trigeminal ganglia and nucleus caudalis significantly increased 4h after NTG in PACAP +/+, but not in PACAP -/- animals. Similar PAC1 receptor immunostaining was detected in both groups, which did not change 4h after NTG treatment. PACAP-38 (300μg/kg, i.p.) produced photophobia similarly to NTG and 30% meningeal vasodilatation for 30min in PACAP +/+, but not in PACAP -/- mice. It significantly increased neural activation 4h later in the trigeminal ganglia of both groups, but in the nucleus caudalis of only the PACAP +/+ mice. We provide the first experimental results that PACAP is a pivotal mediator of trigeminovascular activation/sensitization and meningeal vasodilation related to migraine. © 2011 Elsevier Inc..

Scheich B.,University of Pécs | Gaszner B.,University of Pécs | Kormos V.,University of Pécs | Laszlo K.,University of Pécs | And 13 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2016

Somatostatin regulates stress-related behavior and its expression is altered in mood disorders. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, especially about the importance of its receptors (sst1-sst5) in anxiety and depression-like behavior. Here we analyzed the potential role of sst4 receptor in these processes, since sst4 is present in stress-related brain regions, but there are no data about its functional relevance. Genetic deletion of sst4 (Sstr4-/-) and its pharmacological activation with the newly developed selective non-peptide agonist J-2156 were used. Anxiety was examined in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and depression-like behavior in the forced swim (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Neuronal activation during the TST was monitored by Fos immunohistochemistry, receptor expression was identified by sst4LacZ immunostaining in several brain regions. Sstr4-/- mice showed increased anxiety in the EPM and enhanced depression-like behavior in the FST. J-2156 (100 μg/kg i.p.) exhibited anxiolytic effect in the EPM and decreased immobility in the TST. J-2156 alone did not influence Fos immunoreactivity in intact mice, but significantly increased the stress-induced Fos response in the dorsal raphe nucleus, central projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, the magnocellular, but not the parvocellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the amygdala. Notably, sst4LacZ immunoreactivity occurred in the central and basolateral amygdala. Together, these studies reveal that sst4 mediates anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects by enhancing the stress-responsiveness of several brain regions with special emphasis on the amygdala. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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